Viscosities for Completion Fluids at Temperature and Density
- Anne M. Ortego (BJ Services Company) | Daniel P. Vollmer (BJ Services Co. USA)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- June 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 81 - 89
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 2.4.5 Gravel pack design & evaluation, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 2 Well Completion, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.8 Formation Damage, 2.7.1 Completion Fluids
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Brine viscosities are an important property in sand-control and coil-tubing operations. Viscosities are used to calculate sand settling rates for gravel- packing and frictional pressure losses. Because of limited brine-viscosity data, viscosites were determined for conventional completion fluids using an Oswald viscometer. Then, 3D equations were determined as a function of density and temperature for calcium chloride; calcium bromide; calcium chloride and calcium bromide; calcium bromide and zinc bromide; three-salt mixture of calcium chloride, calcium bromide, and zinc bromide; and sodium bromide solutions. All equations had an absolute average deviation from the measured values of less than 10%.
Brine viscosities are an important property required for many fluid-dynamic situations. When displacing the drilling fluid to brine, the brine viscosity is needed to determine pump horsepower requirement. Once the well is filled with completion fluid and perforated, Darcy's law, which requires the viscosity, can be used to estimate brine losses to the formation in an overbalanced situation. During gravel-pack operations, the viscosity is needed in Forchheimer's equation to predict sand height (Penberthy and Shaughnessy 1992). The brine viscosity is also needed to predict flowing-well surface temperatures and is used for other predictive correlations (Vollmer et al. 2004; Beall et al. 2004).
Viscosities for water and low-density brines are readily available, even at elevated pressures (Kestin et al. 1977; Ershaghi et al. 1983). However, very little work has been done on brines greater than 10.0 ppg. One source provided brine viscosities in chart form at densities up to 16.5 ppg and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 500°F (Foxenberg 1996). However, interpolating within these brine densities is difficult, but these were the best data the industry had available. Because these viscosities were established using an Oswald capillary viscometer, measuring these brine viscosities above 250°F is impossible because of the boiling of these brines. Obviously, the brine viscosities above the boiling point were extrapolated from the measured data. Because no experimental data were provided, the accuracy of these brine viscosities is questionable, and brine viscosities above 16.5 ppg are needed.
The purpose of this work is to provide brine viscosities in equation form and to report the accuracy of these equations from the experimental data.
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Beall, B.B., Monroe, T.D., Vollmer, D.P., and Hanna, F.T. 2004. Brine Effects on Hydration Rates forPolymers Used in Completion and Workover Operations. Paper SPE 86505presented at the 2004 SPE International Symposium on Formation Damage Control,Lafayette, Louisiana, 18-20 February.
Ershaghi, I., Abdassah, D., Bonakdar, M.R., and Ahmad, S. 1983. Estimation of Geothermal BrineViscosity. JPT 35 (3) 621-628. SPE-10311-PA.
Foxenberg, W.E. 1996. Effectsof Completion Fluid Loss on Well Productivity. Paper SPE 31137 presented atthe SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 14-15February.
Kestin J., Khalifa, H.E., Ro, S.T., and Wakeham, W.A. 1977. Preliminary Data on the PressureEffect on the Viscosity of Sodium Chloride-Water Solutions in the Range10-40°C. J. of Chemical and Engineering Data 22 (2):207.
Penberthy, W.L. Jr. and Shaughnessy, C.M. 1992. Sand Control, SPE Series on Special Topics. Richardson, Texas: SPE.
Vollmer, D.P., Fang, C.S., Ortego A.M., and Lemoine, E. 2004. Convective Heat Transfer inTurbulent Flow:Effect of Packer Fluids on Predicting Flowing Well SurfaceTemperatures. Paper SPE 86546 presented at the SPE International Symposiumon Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 18-20 February.
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