Instrumentation for Simplified Commingling and Well-Testing Operations
- George Kite
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- July 1964
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 732 - 738
- 1964. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 5.5.3 Scaling Methods, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
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KITE, GEORGE, BLACK, SIVALLS and BRYSON, INC., TULSA, OKLA.
This paper discusses the theory, operation and practical application of a low-cost, field-proven instrumentation system which saves money and greatly simplifies lease-commingling and well-testing operations by providing an accurate, direct digital readout of the volume of net clean oil in oil-water streams containing up to 100 per cent water.
Lease-commingling and well-testing operations usually require a measurement of the amount of "net clean oil" in an emulsion stream produced by a well or group of wells. Conventional methods of net oil metering require physical separation or treating and subsequent metering of oil and water volumes. Various arrangements of three-phase separators, gas-fired emulsion treaters, fluid meters and samplers are in wide use but are often unnecessarily expensive and complicated; frequently they leave much to be desired insofar as accuracy, operator convenience and adaptability to automation are concerned. The instrumentation system discussed automatically and continuously meters and monitors an oil-water stream containing pure oil, pure water, emulsion, or any combination thereof, and, without requiring physical treating or separation, provides an accurate digital readout of net clean oil volume, directly in barrels. No calculations, conversion factors, or interpretations are required; data are presented instantly, continuously and cumulatively in the most usable form. In addition, electrical digital signals for remote counting and an electrical analog signal for remote percentage water indication or recording are available at the computer terminal block.
Description of Equipment
The system uses an ordinary positive-displacement fluid meter, a wide-range electronic capacitance-measuring instrument, and an electro-mechanical computer. The PD meter measures total fluid volume and supplies a rotational, mechanical input to the computer. The capacitance instrument electronically determines the instantaneous percentage of water in the fluid stream. The computer subtracts the water volume from the total fluid volume and provides an output of the integrated volume of net clean oil. Fig. 1-A shows a typical skid-mounted net oil measuring assembly, consisting of a fluid strainer, a PD meter, a capacitance probe, the computer assembly and a diaphragm-operated fluid dump valve. This skid assembly would be installed downstream of a conventional fluid-gas separator, which is required only to prevent gas from damaging the PD meter. In operation all separator liquids would be discharged from the separator outlet through the skid assembly. Liquid dumping would be controlled by the pneumatic, snap-acting level control on the separator and the diaphragm-operated dump valve on the skid assembly. Two counters in the computer panel would then provide a direct readout of barrels of total fluid and barrels of net clean oil.
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