Influence of Differential Displacement in Invaded Oil and Gas Sands on the Induction Log
- A.J. DeWitte (Gulf Research & Development Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- June 1957
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 48 - 50
- 1957. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis
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It has been observed that upon invasion of a sand containing oil or gas and connate water by mud filtrate the hydrocarbons are more rapidly flushed by the filtrate than is the connate water. In time, it appears that the following displacement pattern emerges: oil (or gas) is being swept ahead by connate water which, in turn, is pushed by invading fluid. Eventually the connate water may have "banked up" sufficiently to form a zone of appreciable thickness leading the invading front. In the extreme case, Fig. 1 shows how the situation will develop:
Immediately adjacent to the borehole (radius r) there is a zone, the invaded zone proper, where the connate water has been flushed out completely and which contains only residual oil or gas and mud filtrate. This zone (extending out to a radius ri) grades more or less abruptly into the next (thickness ?,), which contains only residual hydrocarbon and connate water. Beyond it, again more or less sharply bounded, extends the virgin formation with the original interstitial water saturation Sw. The various saturations are indicated in Fig. 1.
The three zones generally will be marked by resistivity contrasts owing to their different fluid contents. As the connate water is usually more saline than the invading fluid, the second zone having a high connate water saturation forms a concentric cylindrical ring or annulus of low resistivity Rl around the borehole. It will be referred to as the "low zone." Fig. 1 shows schematically the resistivity profile.
It is clear that the phenomenon of a low zone could not occur in invaded water sands. The presence of a low zone, therefore, would be a qualitative indication of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation. Granted that the phenomenon is real, if it were pronounced enough to be detected, one might thereby have a means of locating oil or gas in the ground. This is the aim of the "displacement logging" method. In any case, the presence of a low resistivity zone will affect the reading of electric logs. Using conventional log interpretation techniques, one must be aware of this and, if necessary, correct for it.
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