New Friction Factor Correlations of Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Coiled Tubing
- Yunxu Zhou (U. of Oklahoma) | Subhash N. Shah (U. of Oklahoma)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- March 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 68 - 76
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3 Production and Well Operations, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.6 Drilling Operations
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 949 since 2007
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This paper presents a complete set of friction-factor correlations for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in laminar and turbulent flow in coiled tubing. The friction-factor correlation for non-Newtonian fluids in laminar flow is based on theoretical analysis and numerical solutions of the flow equations of a power-law-model fluid in curved pipes. The empirical correlation for non-Newtonian fluids in turbulent flow is based on full-scale experiments of polymeric-fluid systems in various 1-, 1½-, and 2?-in. coiled-tubing reels. To consider the effect of pipe roughness in coiled tubing, a modified correlation is proposed by combining the Srinivasan et al. correlation (Srinivasan et al. 1970) for smooth, curved pipe and the Chen correlation (Chen 1979) for rough, straight pipe. Examples are given to illustrate the applications and accuracies of the newly developed correlations.
The friction factor in curved pipe at a given Reynolds number is greater than that in straight pipe because of the existence of secondary flow, which is caused by the effect of centrifugal forces in curved-flow geometry. Dean (1927, 1928) conducted the first theoretical study of Newtonian fluid flow in curved pipes by solving the momentum and continuity equations using a successive approximation method. A recent literature review indicates that the flow of Newtonian fluids in curved pipes has been studied extensively since the pioneering work of Dean (Zhou and Shah 2004). In contrast, the information on studies of non-Newtonian fluid flow in curved pipes is relatively scarce.
Coiled tubing has been successfully used in the oil and gas industry for well drilling, completion, wellbore cleanout, stimulation, and other field operations. In these coiled-tubing applications, fluids—typically non-Newtonian—are generally pumped through the coiled tubing. Because of the small diameter and excessive friction loss caused by secondary flow, the maximum pumping rate obtainable is often limited. For engineering design purposes, correlations are needed to accurately predict the frictional pressure losses in the coiled-tubing string and the pumping power requirement.
The present work is an effort to meet such needs by providing a complete set of friction-factor correlations for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids under laminar- and turbulent-flow conditions. For non-Newtonian laminar flow, a new correlation is developed through the boundary-layer approximation analysis and by using the numerical solution of the flow equations of a power-law-model fluid in coiled tubing. The correlation is presented in an empirical form for convenience. For non-Newtonian turbulent flow, a new correlation is established on the basis of the recent experiments performed using a full-scale coiled-tubing flow test facility. A modified correlation for turbulent Newtonian fluid flow is also proposed to include the effect of pipe roughness. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the application of these new correlations and their accuracies in estimating friction factors of fluid flowing in coiled tubing.
|File Size||744 KB||Number of Pages||9|
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