Correlations for Hydrocarbon Gas Viscosity and Gas Density - Validation and Correlation of Behavior Using a Large-Scale Database
- Fabio E. Londono (Occidental Petroleum) | Rosalind A. Archer (U. of Auckland) | Thomas A. Blasingame (Texas A&M U.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- December 2005
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 561 - 572
- 2005. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 4.6 Natural Gas
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 1,151 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The focus of this work is on the behavior of hydrocarbon-gas viscosity andgas density. The viscosity of hydrocarbon gases is a function of pressure,temperature, density, and molecular weight, while the gas density is a functionof pressure, temperature, and molecular weight. This work presents newapproaches for the prediction of gas viscosity and gas density for hydrocarbongases over practical ranges of pressure, temperature, and composition. Thesecorrelations can be used for any hydrocarbon-gas production or transportationopera-tions.
In this work, we created a large database of measured gas viscosity and gasdensity. This database was used to evaluate existing models for gas viscosityand gas density. We also provide new models for gas density and gas viscosity,as well as optimization of existing models, using our new database.
The objectives of this research are as follows:
• To create a large-scale database of measured gas-viscosity and gas-densitydata. This database will contain all the information necessary to establish theapplicability of various models for gas density and gas viscosity over a widerange of pressures and temperatures.
• To evaluate a number of existing models for gas viscosity and gasdensity.
• To develop new models for gas viscosity and gas density using our researchdatabase; these models are proposed and validated.
For this study, we created a large database from existing sources availablein the literature. The properties in our database include composition,viscosity, density, temperature, pressure, pseudoreduced properties, and thegas compressibility factor. We use this database to evaluate the applicabilityof existing models used to determine hydrocarbon-gas viscosity andhydrocarbon-gas density (or, more specifically, the gas z-factor). Finally, wedeveloped new models and calculation approaches to estimate the hydrocarbon-gasviscosity, and we also provide an optimization of the existing equations ofstate (EOS) typically used for for the calculation of the gas z-factor.
Hydrocarbon-Gas Viscosity. NIST—SUPERTRAP Algorithm. Thestate-of-the-art mechanism for the estimation of gas viscosity is most likelythe computer program SUPERTRAP, developed at the U.S. Natl. Inst. of Standardsand Technology (NIST). SUPERTRAP was developed from pure-component and mixturedata and is stated to provide estimates within engineering accuracy from thetriple point of a given substance to temperatures of 1,340.33°F and pressuresof 44,100 psia. Because the SUPERTRAP algorithm requires the composition for aparticular sample, it generally would not be suitable for applications in whichonly the mixture gas gravity and compositions of any contaminants areknown.
Carr et al. Correlation. Carr et al. developed atwo-step procedure to estimate hydrocarbon-gas viscosity. The first step is todetermine the gas viscosity at atmospheric conditions (i.e., a referencecondition). Once estimated, the viscosity at atmospheric pressure is thenadjusted to conditions at temperature and pressure using a second correlation.The gas viscosity can be estimated with graphical correlations or usingequations derived from these figures.
Jossi et al. Correlation. Jossi et al. developed arelationship for the viscosity of pure gases and gas mixtures; this correlationincludes pure components such as argon, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide,sulfur dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentane. This "residualviscosity" relationship can be used to predict gas viscosity with the "reduced"density at a specific temperature and pressure, as well as the molecularweight. The critical properties of the gas (i.e., the critical temperature andcritical pressure) are also required.
Our presumption is that the Jossi et al. correlation (or at least asimilar type of formulation) can be used for the prediction of viscosity forpure hydrocarbon gases and hydrocarbon-gas mixtures. We will note that thiscorrelation is rarely used for hydrocarbon gases (other correlations arepreferred); however, we will consider the formulation given by Jossi etal. as a potential model for the correlation of hydrocarbon-gas-viscositybehavior.
|File Size||4 MB||Number of Pages||12|
1. Huber, M.L: Physical and Chemical Properties Div., Natl. Inst. ofStandards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland.
2. Carr, N.L., Kobayashi, R., and Burrows, D.B.: "Viscosity of HydrocarbonGases Under Pressure," Trans., AIME (1954) 201, 264.
3. Jossi, J.A., Stiel, L.I., and Thodos, G.: "The Viscosity of PureSubstances in the Dense Gaseous and Liquid Phases," AIChE J. (March1962) 8, No. 1, 59.
4. Lee, A.L., Gonzalez, M.H., and Eakin, B.E.: "The Viscosity of NaturalGases,"JPT (August 1966) 997; Trans., AIME, 237.
5. Gonzalez, M.H., Eakin, B.E., and Lee, A.L.: "Viscosity of Natural Gases,"American Petroleum Inst., Monograph on API Research Project 65 (1970).
6. Dranchuk, P.M. and Abou-Kassem, J.H.: "Calculation of z-Factors forNatural Gases Using Equations of State," J. Cdn. Pet. Tech.(July-September 1975) 14, 34.
7. Nishiumi, H. and Saito, S.: "An Improved Generalized BWR Equation ofState Applicable to Low Reduced Temperatures," J. of Chemical Engineering ofJapan (1975) 8, No. 5, 356.
8. Nishiumi, H.: "An Improved Generalized BWR Equation of State with ThreePolar Parameters Applicable to Polar Substances," J. of Chemical Engineeringof Japan (1980) 13, No. 3, 178.
9. Standing, M.B. and Katz, D.L.: "Density of Natural Gases," Trans.,AIME (1942) 146, 140.
10. Poettmann, H.F. and Carpenter, P.G.: "The Multiphase Flow of Gas, Oil,and Water Through Vertical Flow String with Application to the Design ofGas-lift Instal-lations," API Drilling and Production Practice (1952)257.
11. Lee, A.L.: "Viscosity of Light Hydrocarbons," American Petroleum Inst.Monograph on API Research Project 65 (1965).
12. Diehl, J. et al.: "Viscosity and Density of Light Paraffins, Nitrogenand Carbon Dioxide," CREPS/Geopetrole, Paris (1970).
13. Golubev, I.F.: Viscosity of Gases and Gas Mixtures, A Handbook,translation from Russian by the Natl. Technical Information Service (1959).
14. Stephan, K. and Lucas, K.: "Viscosity of Dense Fluids," The PurdueResearch Foundation, West Lafayette, Indiana (1979).
15. Setzmann, U. and Wagner, W.: "A New Equation of State and Tables ofThermodynamic Properties for Methane Covering the Range from the Melting Lineto 625 K at Pressures up to 1000 MPa," J. of Physical and Chemical ReferenceData (1991) 20, No 6, 1061.
16. Xue, G. et al.: "OptimalTransformations for Multiple Regression: Application to Permeability Estimationfrom Well Logs," SPEFE (June 1997) 85.