Experimentally Determined Resistivity Profiles In Invaded Water and Oil Sands for Linear Flows
- M. Gondouin (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.) | A. Heim (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- March 1964
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 337 - 348
- 1964. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.3.1 Flow in Porous Media, 5.6.5 Tracers, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing
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Invasion experiments were run on Berea sandstone cores to get laboratory measurements of resistivity and saturation profiles characteristic of water and oil sands invaded by mud filtrate. Injection rates were as low as 1.13 cm/D, and the cores were 30 to 36 in. long, cut parallel to the bedding planes. In the water-sand case, the resistivity profiles revealed the existence of an extensive transition zone between flushed and uncontaminated zones. In the linear geometry of the experiment, the width of the transition zone increased as the square root of the injected fluid volume. For the oil-sand case the core was prepared by displacing the formation water with kerosene to in minimum water saturation. During the subsequent invasion experiment. oil saturation was measured directly by means of an oil-soluble radioactive tracer, and resistivity profiles along the core were taken at the same time. These data were interpreted in terms of an oil-water front, followed by a formation water bank, a zone of mixed waters, and finally, invaded mud filtrate near the borehole. Micro-fingering and capillarity seemed to affect considerably the resistivity profiles observed in the invaded oil-sand experiment. Beyond the regular conductive annulus or "low zone", it was found that a resistive "and-annulus" could also be formed. As a result of these experiments, some simplified invasion profiles have been accepted and are being used in Grand Slam* interpretations.
The importance of the mud filtrate-invaded zone in interpreting electrical logs has long been recognized. In trying to account for its effect, only very simple models of the resistivity profiles in the radial direction from the borehole have been used. In fact, most log interpretation charts have been based on resistivity models consisting of two media of uniform resistivity (R and R5) abruptly separated at the diameter of invasion. Such a clean separation of the media of different resistivities seems unrealistic, since flushing may not be perfect and may vary with radial distance into the formation. ** The nature of the transition zone, when it is within the radius of investigation of the surveying devices, may affect the log readings. Campbell and Martin verified that a conductive annulus containing a high percentage of formation water may be formed when mud filtrate invades an oil-bearing sand. Interpretations which are to include the effect of such an annulus require the addition to the model of a conductive zone located at the outer rim of the invaded zone. Using the Buckley-Leverett relations, saturation profiles may be derived, from which resistivity profiles can be calculated. Results of such computations by K. S. Kunz and J. H. Moran were given in a paper by Dumanoir, Tixier and Martin, and led to the construction of log interpretation charts which were based on a representation with three media of resistivities Rxo, Ran and Rt. Fig. 1 shows a schematic representation of a resistivity profile which includes an annulus. Campbell and Martin realized that, during the invasion of an oil sand, both capillarity and mixing would contribute to rounding of the profile shown in Fig. 1.
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