Determination of Oil/Water Bank Mobility in Micellar-Polymer Flooding(includes associated papers 7668 and 7669 )
- H.L. Chang (Cities Service Co.) | H.M. Al-Rikabi (Cities Service Co.) | W.H. Pusch (Cities Service Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- July 1978
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,055 - 1,060
- 1978. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation
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This paper discusses how to design the mobility control slug in micellar-polymer flooding. Total relative mobilities of the oil/water bank in the El Dorado 650-ft Admire sandstone were measured. There were large discrepancies among the data obtained from different core samples. Data must be examined carefully for proper design of a slug.
Because of the high displacement efficiency of micellar solutions, high water-permeability channels or fingers would be generated in a reservoir without sufficient mobility control. The low residual oil saturations (0-to 10-percent PV) associated with the micellar flooding process and high water-permeability channels not only would prevent buildup of a stable oil/water bank, but also would cause early breakthrough and, therefore, loss of expensive chemicals in the micellar slug.
Methods used to design adequate mobility control for miscible-type waterfloods using micellar solutions were given by Gogarty et al. Their discussion includes the use of relative-permeability curves, the direct measurement technique, and details about the selection of representative relative-permeability curves. Trushenski el al. presented some interesting results about direct measurement of mobilities of oil/water banks, micellar solutions, and polymer slugs in laboratory flow experiments using high water-content microemulsions.
When determining the mobility design for the El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project, the mobility of the oil/water bank in native-state reservoir cores was investigated extensively using steady-state and transient relative-permeability measurements and by direct determination in micellar-polymer displacement tests. The lowest "minimum total relative mobility" was 0.016 cp-1, which corresponds to an apparent viscosity of 62.5 cp for an oil/water bank. The viscosity of the El Dorado crude oil at reservoir conditions is 4.8 cp. Analysis of data resulted in a design mobility of 0.02 cp-1 or an apparent viscosity of 50 cp.
Total Relative Mobility and Design Mobility
The total relative mobility, lambda T, is defined as the sum of oil and water relative mobilities in a two-phase flow system it can be expressed by the following equation.
Air permeability was used as the base permeability throughout this study. Viscosities of oils used in relative-permeability measurements varied from 1.3 to 20 cp, depending on the type of oil and temperature. Typical relative-permeability and total relative-mobility curves are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 2 shows that total relative mobilities calculated from relative-permeability data in the direction of decreasing water saturation are considerably lower than those calculated in the direction of increasing water saturation. Minimum total relative mobilities (lambda T min) are 0.022 and 0.038 cp-1 in the directions of decreasing and increasing water saturation, respectively. Imbibition (in the direction of increasing wetting-phase saturation) and drainage (in the direction of increasing nonwetting-phase saturation) commonly are used to describe the direction of saturation change.
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