Pembina Field Polymer Pilot Flood
- H. Groeneveld (Mobil Oil Canada, Ltd.) | R.A. George (Mobil Research and Development Corp.) | J.C. Melrose (Mobil Research and Development Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- May 1977
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 561 - 570
- 1977. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis
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A polymer pilot flood using Pusher 700 as carried out in two adjacentfive-spot patterns in the Pembina field to decrease water channeling in a thickconglomerate zone overlying the sand pay. Although a high viscosity wasachieved in the pilot injection water, only temporary improvements in theproducing- and injection-well behavior were observed.
The Pembina field is located in Alberta, Canada, ab out 70 miles southwestof Edmonton (Fig. 1). This large field, which now covers about 500,000 acres,was discovered in 1953 by Mobil Oil Canada, Ltd. The reservoir is astratigraphic trap producing from the Cardium zone at a depth of about 5,000ft. Neither bottom water nor free gas has been found. The field is developed on80- and 160-acre spacing. There are presently about 3,000 active producingwells and 1,400 injection wells. The cumulative production to date is 800million bbl, or about 11 percent of the original oil in place. More than 75percent of the field is under pressure maintenance by waterflooding, miscibleflooding, or gas flooding.
The Cardium zone, which is of Cretaceous age, was deposited under varyingconditions and shows a wide range of rock characteristics. The sand is overlainby a conglomerate section that is extremely erratic in deposition and variablein thickness. Permeabilities in the conglomerate can be very high. Pressuremaintenance performance in the field is severely affected by reservoirstratification in the sand, and particularly by the presence of a welldeveloped conglomerate section. Early breakthroughs and high WOR s are typicalproduction characteristics for wells in areas with thick conglomeratesections.
Considering that the oil in place in the Pembina field is about 7.4 billionbbl and that about 15 percent of the area is overlain by a well developedconglomerate, some improvement of the vertical sweep efficiency throughreducing the adverse effects of the conglomerate could add large reserves tothis field. However, there have been no successful field tests to achieve thisgoal. The purpose of the pilot was to field test the efficiency of Dow ChemicalU.S.A. Pusher 700 in an area of the Pembina field where the stratification hasseverely affected a waterflood.
The viscosity of the Pembina oil is about 1 cp and the flood mobility ratiois less than unity, which is a generally favorable flood situation. Thus, theobjective of the test was not a general performance improvement to correct anadverse mobility-ratio flood, but was to reduce water channeling to bring aboutbetter vertical sweep.
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