Conditioning of Pacific Ocean Water for Waterflood Injection
- J.D. Sudbury (Continental Oil Co.) | C.F. Knutson (Continental Oil Co.) | Martin Felsenthal (Continental Oil Co.) | J.D. Lung (Continental Oil Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 1956
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 85 - 89
- 1956. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics
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This paper has been written to summarize the laboratory and field studies leading to injection of Pacific Ocean water into the Third Grubb formation.
Laboratory tests for studying the permeabilities of cores to Pacific Ocean water are described. Results of these tests showed that the water could be successfully injected if it is chemically stable, sterile, and properly filtered. Clay swelling was shown to be a comparatively minor factor in permeability reduction.
Studies leading to development of an economical system for properly conditioning the ocean water are discussed. It was necessary to control pH, calcium carbonate deposition, bacterial growth, iron solubility, oxygen, and suspended solids. A relatively simple system combining the use of sulfur dioxide, a quaternary ammonium chloride, and filtration was shown to adequately control all these factors. This combination has not previously been used as a water treating technique.
Evaluation tests of the water conditioning system prior to injection are described, and results of such tests are presented. Control measures needed to insure a continuously adequate water treatment are reviewed.
The utilization of sea water for waterflooding has only recently been attempted. Knowledge of treating requirements has been limited, and in most cases no water treating has been done.
Prior to the initiation of the Third Grubb zone pilot water flood at Ventura, Calif., extensive laboratory research was done in an effort to define the treatment necessary to provide a suitable injection fluid.
Close coordination and cooperation between field and research personnel were found to be the foremost requisites in developing the most economical and practical method for treating ocean water.
Plugging Tendencies of Untreated Ocean Water
A program of laboratory studies was initiated for the purpose of evaluating whether ocean water could be injected into the formation for prolonged periods of time without causing plugging of the pore spaces of the formation. Because of the fairly low permeability of the formation (averaging about 40 md), it was realized from the outset that a water of exceptionally high quality was needed.
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