Safety Characteristics of Lockheed's Subsea Production System
- G.H. Fahlman (Lockheed Petroleum Services Ltd.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- April 1975
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 427 - 432
- 1975. Society of Petroleum Engineers
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- 110 since 2007
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Safety standards applying to the development and operation of Lockheed's subsea production system are discussed. Past and future actions to meet safety standards, and a review of performed operations with the impact of these operations on safety improvements are included.
The Lockheed one-atmosphere subsea completion system, when fully developed, will comprise permanent subsea chambers and mobile service permanent subsea chambers and mobile service systems. The subsea chambers, called wellhead cellars, manifold centers, and pumping stations, will contain wellhead equipment, control systems, machinery and pumps, manifolds, instrumentation, and other equipment essential for the controlled production of oil and gas. Flowlines and control production of oil and gas. Flowlines and control cables will interconnect the subsea chambers to facilitate transport of oil and gas and transmission of control data.
The service system transports men and equipment to the subsea chambers using a service capsule with a surface-connected umbilical providing electric power, life support, and other services required for work in the subsea chambers. This work initially consists of installing production and control equipment, pulling in flowlines, and testing pressure and drift, followed by maintenance, repair, pressure and drift, followed by maintenance, repair, and service of subsea chambers, production and control equipment, flowlines, and control cables.
Operational hardware includes a wellhead cellar installed in the Gulf of Mexico in the summer of 1972 at a water depth of 375 ft; and a Gulf of Mexico service system based in Houma, La., used for the 1972 well installation and a subsequent routine re-entry in 1973.
Several standard wellhead cellars have been engineered: (1) non-TFL cellars (for applications not using pump-down tools), (2) TFL cellars (for pumpdown tool application), and (3) split cellars for wet tree installation.
The development of the first manifold center is well under way. The manifold center is being landtested and is scheduled for installation in the Gulf of Mexico later this year.
To meet the needs of the off shore industry in the North Sea area, a second service system is now being built. It is scheduled to be operational by July 1, 1976.
It is the intent of this paper to discuss the safety principles of Lockheed's subsea production system principles of Lockheed's subsea production system and to describe actions already taken and safety features being implemented.
There are a considerable number of safety regulations, standards, guidelines, principles, etc., established and controlled by several government agencies and private societies. The U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) private societies. The U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) are examples of regulatory bodies, and the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) are typical certifying societies. In addition, insurance companies may have specific safety requirements that must be met before insurance coverage can be obtained at reasonable rates. The design engineer, the project engineer, and the operations superintendent are responsible for compliance with all these regulations, standards, guidelines, and requirements.
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