Formation Density Log Applications in Liquid-Filled Holes
- R.P. Alger (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.) | L.L. Raymer Jr. (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- March 1963
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 321 - 332
- 1963. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5.2 Core Analysis
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The formation density logging tool provides a radioactivity measurement that yields formation densities in situ. The relationship between bulk density and porosity is well understood. With knowledge of grain and fluid densities, porosity may be computed from the indicated formation bulk densities in shale-free formations. The porosities thus determined may be used with a resistivity log for water-saturation determinations. One technique utilizes a density vs resistivity plot. A plot of density vs Sonic-log transit time is used for porosity determinations in shaly sands. This method is particularly suited to wells drilled with oil-base or salt muds. In shale-free formations, comparisons of density values and neutron-log readings are used to identify lithology and, thus, to select appropriate values of grain density for porosity computations. Through the use of Formation Density, Sonic and neutron logs, the interpretation problems caused by complex matrix lithologies are simplified. Other applications of the Formation Density log are found in the identification of minerals in evaporate deposits and in yield determinations of "oil shales".
Widespread field application has demonstrated that the measurement of formation density is a useful and revealing technique for well logging. Responding to the bulk density variations of the formation, the Formation Density log affords valuable data on the porosity, lithology and fluid content of the formations. Although not without its own limitations, the Formation Density tool may provide effective interpretation under conditions that hamper or preclude the use of other porosity devices. When used in conjunction with other devices, such as the Sonic or neutron, complex matrix conditions may be better understood, defined and evaluated. A previous paper described the valuable contribution of the Formation Density tool in the logging of empty, or gas-filled, holes. The purpose of the present paper is to describe applications of the device in liquid-filled holes.
THE FORMATION DENSITY TOOL
The Formation Density tool was devised to measure the bulk densities of formations in situ. Actually, the device responds to electron density, but in the overwhelming majority of cases of interest, the electron density is very closely proportional to the bulk density. In other cases appropriate corrections can be made if necessary. Comparisons of log-derived densities with true densities for the more common matrix minerals are shown in Table 1. The tool consists of a gamma-ray source and detector mounted in a skid which, during the logging operation, is in contact with the borehole wall (see Ref. 1 for schematic). Gamma rays are emitted by the source and diffused through the formation. The number of diffused gamma rays reaching the detector at a fixed spacing from the source are counted. An increase in counting rate by the detector indicates a decrease in bulk density in front of the skid. Conversely, a decreased counting rate signifies an increase in bulk density. A measurement of hole diameter, between the face of the skid and that of the eccentering arm, is recorded simultaneously with the measurement of diffused gamma rays. Since the tool is a wall-contact device, the size of the borehole has little influence, provided good contact is maintained with the wall of the hole. Only in extremely large or small boreholes does the actual diameter become significant. However, for most accurate measurements the borehole size should be taken into account. Fig. 1 presents the departure curves for the conversion of counting rate to bulk density for liquid-filled holes of various sizes. It is of utmost importance that the skid maintain good contact with the wall of the hole. If, due to roughness or caving, there is mud between the skid and the formation, the tool will include in its response the relatively low-density mud, and the apparent density reading will be too low. Normally, permeable beds do not cave appreciably, so that reliable readings are usually available for zones of interest. Nevertheless, the caliper reading over the zone of interest should be examined for any wall roughness. When mud cake exists between the skid and the formation, the Formation Density log sees it as part of the formation. When thick mud cakes exist, a correction is required. TABLE 1 -- LOG-DERIVED DENSITY VS TRUE DENSITY
MINERAL FDL DENSITY TRUE DENSITY (gm/cc) (gm/cc) Quartz 2.65 2.65 Calcite 2.71 2.71 Dolomite 2.88 2.87 Anhydrite 2.98 2.96 Gypsum 2.35 2.32 Salt 2.03 2.16
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