A Hydrothermal Setting Cement for Cementing Ultradeep, Hot Wells
- S. Maravilla (Universal Cement, Div. of U.S. Steel Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- October 1974
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,087 - 1,094
- 1974. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.1 Hydrates, 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating
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Laboratory data show that a unique hydrothermal setting cement can be used as manufactured-without the addition of high-temperature field retarders-to cement oil and gas wells where the bottom-hole static temperature is in the range of 260 deg. to 320 deg. F. If necessary, the retarders and other field additives can be used to extend that range when wells must reach 18,000 to 24,000 ft.
In 1969, oil company representatives of API Committee 10 on Standardization of Oil Well Cements expressed concern that difficulties were still being encountered in retarding marketed Class H cements for wells deeper than 14,000 ft. The Committee appointed a task group that not only confirmed the need for a new cement, but adopted, in 1972, a set of tentative specifications based on a specific marketed high-temperature cement. The cement was designated Class J. This paper describes a unique hydrothermal setting cement based on a new concept for oilwell cements, the theory for which is documented in the literature.
A natural question that immediately comes to mind is "What is hydrothermal setting cement?" Depending on the starting materials, the product may consist of any mixture of compounds - for example, port-land cement; portland cement and silica flours or silica, lime, and waters that react to form crystalline silicate hydrates under hydrothermal conditions. These reactions take place in the presence of water above 212 deg. F at pressures exceeding atmospheric pressure. pressure. The hydrothermal setting cement composition described here is composed essentially of a binder, quartz sand, and calcium hydroxide. The binder is beta dicalcium silicate (beta- 2CaOSiO.), one of the main mineral constituents of portland cement. Table 1 shows typical chemical analysis, fineness, and specific gravity of hydrothermal setting cement (henceforth referred to as HTS cement) vs Class H plus 60 percent silica flour. plus 60 percent silica flour. It appears from results of chemical analyses shown in Table 1 that the typical HTS cement discussed here is virtually the same as a typical Class H cement to which 60 percent silica flour (SiO.) has been added. However, it must be understood that the HTS cement contains different compounds. Obviously, the thermal history of the hydrothermal cement binder and the fineness of the cement are essential considerations. Data shown in Table 2 clearly show that HTS cement exhibits better thickening time and compressive strength characteristics than unretarded Class H plus 60 percent silica flour. Under ordinary temperatures HTS cement is relatively unreactive. ASTM C109 strength results show that 2-in. mortar cubes cured at 73 deg. - 3deg.F did not set in 9 days. Despite extended curing periods of 28 days and 180 days under comparable conditions, the strength of the specimens developed quite slowly; i.e., 200 psi and 1,000 psi, respectively.
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