Pore-Volume Compressibility of Consolidated, Friable, and Unconsolidated Reservoir Rocks Under Hydrostatic Loading
- G.H. Newman (Chevron Oil Field Research Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- February 1973
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 129 - 134
- 1973. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
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The pore-volume compressibilities and porosities presented here were derived from 256 samples of sandstone and limestone representing 40 reservoirs. These and previously published data are in poor agreement with compressibility-porosity correlations in the literature. The salient conclusion is that to evaluate rock compressibility for a given reservoir it is necessary to measure compressibility in the laboratory.
The use of pore-volume compressibility-porosity correlations in engineering calculations is well known. The correlations developed by Hall for both sandstones and limestones have been widely distributed. Van der Knaap published a similar correlation using limestone samples from a single well and also correlated the data with net pressure. Such correlations are attractive because of the simple relationship established. However, those correlations were intended only for well consolidated samples; correlations for friable or unconsolidated samples have not been published. This study compares our laboratory data with the published correlations of consolidated samples as published correlations of consolidated samples as well as with values for friable and unconsolidated sandstones. Compressibility values are presented for 256 rock samples from 40 reservoirs - 197 samples from 29 sandstone reservoirs and 59 samples from 11 limestone reservoirs. Porosities ranged from less than 1 percent to 35 percent. Compressibility values from the literature for 79 samples are added, including Hall's and Van der Knaap's.
The Experiments Sampling
To obtain a representative sample of a formation for testing, one must avoid grain rearrangement. This problem is unlikely to occur with consolidated problem is unlikely to occur with consolidated samples or friable samples containing some cementation, although the effect of removing the overburden is still unknown. Unconsolidated samples, on the other hand, present a much more complex problem, in that grain rearrangement is very likely during either coring or subsequent handling. The advent of the rubber-sleeve core barrel much improved the chances of obtaining, representative samples. We have some evidence that, if carefully handled. rubber-sleeve cores will provide reasonably undisturbed samples. However, even if the sand is captured undisturbed in the rubber sleeve, internal gas can expand the core during the trip to the surface. The history of all the samples used in this study is not complete, but most of the unconsolidated samples were obtained from rubber-sleeve cores.
Preparing the Samples Preparing the Samples The consolidated and friable samples used in this study were generally plugs 1 in. in diameter and 3 in. long,, and their condition ranged from well preserved to dry and weathered. The core plugs were extracted in solvent to remove water and hydrocarbons, put into a flexible jacket, and saturated with a refined oil. The unconsolidated samples of about the same dimensions were generally cored from rubber-sleeve cores that had been frozen in liquid nitrogen and for which liquid nitrogen had been used as a drilling fluid. The frozen samples were placed in a Teflon sleeve and allowed to thaw. End plates and screens were then placed on the ends of the samples.
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