An Experimental Investigation of the S.P. and Resistivity Phenomena in Dirty Sands
- M.R.J. Wyllie (Gulf Research & Development Co.) | P.F. Southwick (Gulf Research & Development Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- February 1954
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 44 - 57
- 1954. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
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The importance of the so-called "dirty sand" or "conductive solids" problem in electric log interpretation was first stressed in a paper presented in 1949. Since that time the problem has been generally recognized as a most serious one. Several research papers bearing on the theory of the effects of clay contaminants on reservoir rock resistivities have appeared. These papers, while contributing to the theory of the problem, have not offered any practical solution.
In the present paper an experimental investigation has been made of the effects of ion-exchange materials on the electrical properties of natural and synthetic porous media. The method used to make synthetic dirty sands is entirely novel and has proved a valuable guide to a better understanding of the properties of dirty sands generally. The effects of ion-exchange materials on both the resistivity and self potential (S.P.) logs have been examined. From the data obtained it has been possible to formulate a simple, practical method whereby electrical logs of dirty sands can be qualitatively interpreted. The method is in all essentials identical to that presently in use for interpreting clean sands. New light has also been thrown on the significance of the term formation factor when it is applied to dirty sands.
In 1949 a paper was presented which showed that the presence of so-called "conductive solids" introduced considerable complexities into the analysis of the resistivities of dirty sands, i.e., permeable formations containing clay. The reduction of the self potential (S.P.) resulting from the presence of interlaminated shale or interstitial clay in permeable formations has been discussed by Doll.
Noteworthy papers which dilate further upon the effects of shale and clay on the resistivity of permeable formations are those of deWitte, Berg, Wyllie, and most recently, Winsauer and McCardell. The last authors have endeavored to elucidate the chemistry of the resistivity phenomena in dirty sands in terms of an adsorption hypothesis. Specifically, they attribute the electrolytic conductivity of shales and clays within a permeable formation to an ionic double-layer effect and, for this reason, regard the term "conductive solids" as a misleading one.
Some consideration has been given to the effect of dirty sands on the S.P. by Wyllie and by McCardell, Winsauer and Williams.
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