Plugging Off Water in Fractured Formations
- George C. Howard (Stanolind Oil and Gas Co.) | P.P. Scott Jr. (Stanolind Oil and Gas Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- June 1954
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 21 - 26
- 1954. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 2 Well Completion, 3.2.4 Acidising, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 3 Production and Well Operations, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties)
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A field remedial procedure utilizing a kerosene-cement slurry as a water plug-off agent in fractured formations was evaluated both in the laboratory and in the field. This procedure has proved to be capable of effectively shutting off water without causing permanent impairment of the oil production. Success was attributed to the fact that an immobile cement slurry, when placed in a water-producing strata, will set and form an impermeable barrier; whereas when placed in an oil-producing section the cement will retain a relatively high permeability and may be removed by acidizing.
One of the most perplexing problems facing the oil industry is the selective exclusion of water production from oil or gas-producing wells. This problem has been studied by many investigators in an attempt to develop a material that is not only capable of reducing water production but is also capable of being selective in that it will not impair oil production in either fractured or intergranular type reservoirs. A study of these two types of formations indicated that two distinct types of materials for controlling water production might be required - a completely liquid plugging agent for intergranular formations and a semi-liquid or slurry type plugging agent for fractured formations. This paper is limited to the control of water production from fractured formations.
A common source of water in the vicinity of oil bearing rock reservoirs is water which previously has entered and, because of its higher density, generally lies near the bottom of the formation. When the deepest point of penetration of a well into such an oil and water-bearing formation is above the level of the water, and the dynamical gradients due to the flow of oil overbalance the difference in densities between oil and water, water production becomes a problem. Then the water level rises in the shape of a cone and is produced from the lower depths.
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