The Chemical Logging of Drilling Fluids
- T.L. Hughes (Schlumberger Cambridge Research) | T.G.J. Jones (Schlumberger Cambridge Research) | T. Geehan (Schlumberger Dowell)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- December 1995
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 255 - 264
- 1995. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 6.5.4 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 1.11.2 Drilling Fluid Selection and Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 2.2.3 Fluid Loss Control, 5.6.5 Tracers, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 5.9.2 Geothermal Resources, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 1.11.4 Solids Control, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 4.3.4 Scale
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A new method of measuring the concentration of ions in water-based mud filtrates is described. The method, based on ion chromatography (IC), provides a tool to monitor changes in the composition of both major ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and carbonate) and environmentally sensitive ions (e.g., chromium and mercury) in mud filtrate during drilling. Changes in filtrate composition are caused by mud treatment and/or mud/rock interactions; chemical logs can be used to discriminate broad lithological changes. The mud-filtrate composition is modeled with a computer-based equilibrium model. The chemical-logging method has been applied to two case studies, one of which involved operation of equipment at the rigsite. The method can be used to monitor the composition of ions not currently analyzed by the widely accepted American Petroleum Inst. (API) Standard 13B-1 procedures.
Chemical composition is a critical factor in determining the performance of water-based drilling fluids and in devising procedures for their treatment. During drilling, the circulating mud undergoes continual chemical changes that arise from additions of mud products at the surface, interactions with drilled formations (the addition of drilled solids, pore-fluid influxes, and dissolution/precipitation reactions), and losses at the surface (mud discharge and retention of mud products on cuttings). In general, these changes degrade the performance of the mud and must be corrected, either by treatment or by discharge.
Despite the increasing importance of water-based drilling fluids and the growing emphasis on their suitability to discharge, current rigsite monitoring of their chemical composition is limited. The widely accepted API Standard 13B-1 procedures give an incomplete analysis of the ionic composition of the drilling fluid; for example, the concentrations of sodium, sulfate, and carbonate/bicarbonate ions are not routinely monitored. Methods for determining the concentration of potassium have been the subject of some attention, although these techniques do not appear to be in routine use. Methods have also been described to monitor the concentration of certain polymers and organics and such mud solids as bentonite, but these components are not monitored routinely.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||10|