Deformable Diverting Agent for Improved Well Stimulation
- J.P. Gallus (Union Oil Co. of California) | D.S. Pye (Union Oil Co. of California)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- April 1969
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 497 - 504
- 1969. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.3.3 Particle Transportation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.6 Natural Gas, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 2.2.3 Fluid Loss Control, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 2.2.2 Perforating, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 3 Production and Well Operations
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A mixture of wax and polymer becomes a highly effective diverting agent for reducing fluid loss to formations during hydraulic pressure treatment of wells. The key to its effectiveness is its plastic deformability.
Successful hydraulic pressure treatment of oil and gas wells that have long producing intervals, multiple pay zones, fluid thief zones, or natural or induced fractures has long been a serious problem plaguing the petroleum industry. High fluid-injection rates, petroleum industry. High fluid-injection rates, straddle packers, ball sealers, and either liquid or solid additives to the treating fluids are being used to cope with this difficult and costly problem. The use of ball sealers and straddle packers is limited, in practice, to wells that have been completed with perforated cemented casings or liners. Well stimulation with ball sealers and straddle packers is usually successful as long as the cement remains competent. The other techniques of diverting are used with all types of completions. However, there are two significant disadvantages of the high rate method: excessive horsepower requirements, and the need of large treating-fluid volume. Consequently, most well stimulation techniques that involve diverting depend upon ball sealers or granular materials.
Liquid diverting agents, and some of the solid ones in use today, frequently will cause formation damage. On the other hand, the most popular particulate diverting agents often are so soluble in the treating fluid that they become largely ineffective; their particle size is severely reduced as they dissolve while being transported through thousands of feet of pipe to the formation face down hole.
In our attempts to deal with the shortcomings of these diverting agents, we experimented with a large variety of potentially suitable deformable materials the solubility of which could be controlled. Following are the criteria for the diverting agent sought:
1. The material must be effective in reducing fluid loss to thief zones, including existing fractures and very high permeability layers in the formation to be pressure treated. pressure treated. 2. The material must have enough strength to bridge under the treating pressure.
3. The material must be insoluble or slowly soluble in the treating fluids so that the particles retain sufficient size to be effective after they reach the formation face.
4. The material must be completely soluble in the produced oil or condensate liquid so that it can be produced oil or condensate liquid so that it can be removed readily; it must not cause formation damage.
A number of products consisting of various polymers blended with waxes and other solid hydrocarbons polymers blended with waxes and other solid hydrocarbons were examined. All these materials satisfied the criteria for a diverting agent and also exhibited some degree of plastic deformability. On the basis of initial tests of strength and hardness, several blends of wax and polymer were selected for extensive testing in the laboratory and the field. These compounds have congealing temperatures ranging from 140 to 190F; they are insoluble in water and soluble in oil. They conformed, therefore, to the criteria specified for a theoretically superior diverting agent.
Laboratory and field tests were conducted using these wax-polymer materials to demonstrate that the use of a deformable diverting agent can significantly improve fluid diverting performance.
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