Quantification of Phase Behavior for Solvent/Heavy-Oil/Water Systems at High Pressures and Elevated Temperatures with Dynamic Volume Analysis
- Zehua Chen (China University of Petroleum (East China) and University of Regina) | Zulong Zhao (University of Regina) | Daoyong Yang (University of Regina)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- solvents-heavy oil/water systems, dynamic volume analysis, phase volume measurements, literature data validation
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 15 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Accurate quantification of phase behavior of solvent/heavy-oil/bitumen/water systems at high pressures and elevated temperatures is of high significance for the design of vapor extraction, cyclic solvent injection, expanding-solvent steam-assisted gravity drainage (ES-SAGD), and hot-solvent injection processes. The relevant experimental data and theoretical analyses are still insufficient for achieving a reliable model. This is especially true when the system temperatures approach or exceed the critical temperatures of the solvents used (i.e., when the solvent density is large enough).
This study provides new experimental measurements of the phase behavior of propane (C3H8)/carbon dioxide (CO2)/heavy-oil/water systems at pressures up to 20 MPa and temperatures up to 432.3 K. More specifically, four feeds of C3H8/CO2/heavy-oil/water systems are used to conduct constant composition expansion (CCE) tests, during which the heights of the entire fluid system (i.e., total volume) and each phase are recorded at each pressure and temperature, respectively. Theoretically, a dynamic volume analysis (DVA) of the measured data is proposed for the first time to quantify each phase, provided that the assumption for vapor phase is valid and that the vapor and oleic phase densities can be accurately calculated. By tuning the binary interaction parameter (BIP) for solvent/heavy-oil pairs (denoted as BIPS–HO) to match the total volume, the height of the vapor/oleic (V/L) interface can be matched as well. By using the tuned BIPS–HO, the total volume and height of the V/L interface of C3H8/CO2/heavy-oil/water systems can be accurately predicted, no matter whether the solvent solubility in water is low (i.e., C3H8) or high (i.e., CO2). This DVA can be used to determine/evaluate the solvent solubility, saturation pressure/phase boundary, and phase volume/density accurately in a large temperature and pressure range. The newly proposed DVA method is also used to reproduce the experimental measurements collected from the literature, including phase-volume fractions, solvent solubility, and saturation pressure. In addition, the DVA method can serve as a tool to check whether the experimental measurements are reliable or not.
*Supporting information included
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Amani, M. J., Gray, M. R., and Shaw, J. M. 2014. The Phase Behavior of Athabasca Bitumen + Toluene + Water Ternary Mixtures. Fluid Phase Equilib 370: 75–84. https://doi.org/10.101/j.fluid.2014.02.028.
Badamchi-Zadeh, A., Yarranton, H. W., Maini, B. B. et al. 2009a. Phase Behaviour and Physical Property Measurements for VAPEX Solvents: Part II. Propane, Carbon Dioxide and Athabasca Bitumen. J Can Pet Technol 48 (3): 57–65. PETSOC-09-03-57. https://doi.org/10.2118/09-03-57.
Badamchi-Zadeh, A., Yarranton, H. W., Svrcek, W. Y. et al. 2009b. Phase Behaviour and Physical Property Measurements for VAPEX Solvents: Part I. Propane and Athabasca Bitumen. J Can Pet Technol 48 (1): 54–61. PETSOC-09-01-54. https://doi.org/10.2118/09-01-54.
Chen, Z. 2019. Quantification of Phase Behaviour and Physical Properties of Solvents-Heavy Oil/Bitumen-Water Systems at High Pressures and Elevated Temperatures. PhD dissertation, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada (July 2019).
Chen, Z. and Yang, D. 2017. Optimization of the Reduced Temperature Associated with Peng-Robinson Equation of State and Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State To Improve Vapor Pressure Prediction for Heavy Hydrocarbon Compounds. J Chem Eng Data 62 (10): 3488–3500. https:/doi.org/10.1021.acs.jced.7b00496.
Chen, Z. and Yang, D. 2018a. Prediction of Phase Behaviour for n-Alkane-CO2-Water Systems with Consideration of Mutual Solubility Using Peng-Robinson Equation of State. J Supercrit Fluids 138: 174–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2018.03.020.
Chen, Z. and Yang, D. 2018b. Quantification of Phase Behaviour of Solvents-Heavy Oil Systems in the Presence of Water at High Pressures and Elevated Temperatures. Fuel 232: 803–816. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.05.116.
Chen, Z. and Yang, D. 2019. A Tangent-Line Approach for Effective Density Used in Ideal Mixing Rule: Part I—Prediction of Density for Heavy Oil/Bitumen Associated Systems. SPE J. SPE-199340-PA (in press; posted December 2019). https://doi.org/10.2118/199340-PA.
Chen, Z. and Yang, D. 2020. A Tangent-Line Approach for Effective Density Used in Ideal Mixing Rule: Part II—Evaluation of Mixing Characteristics of Oil/Gas Systems and Application Criteria. SPE J. SPE-200490-PA (in press; posted April 2020). https://doi.org/10.2118/200490-PA.
Computer Modelling Group Ltd. 2012. WinProp Phase Property Program. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Computer Modelling Group Ltd.
Dymond, J. H. and Malhotra, R. 1988. The Tait Equation: 100 Years On. Int J Thermophys 9 (6): 941–951. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01133262.
Eghbali, S. and Dehghanpour, H. 2018. An Experimental and Modeling Study of Carbon Dioxide/Bitumen and C4/Bitumen Phase Behavior at Elevated Temperatures Using Cold Lake Bitumen. SPE J. 23 (6): 1991–2014. SPE-187259-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/187259-PA.
Eghbali, S., Dehghanpour, H., Dragani, J. et al. 2018. Phase Behaviour and Viscosity of Bitumen-CO2/Light Hydrocarbon Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures: A Cold Lake Case Study. Paper presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 13–14 March. SPE-189765-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/189765-MS.
Gao, J., Okuno, R., and Li, H. 2017. An Experimental Study of Multiphase Behavior for n-Butane/Bitumen/Water Mixtures. SPE J. 22 (3): 783–798. SPE-180736-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/180736-PA.
Gao, J., Okuno, R., and Li, H. 2018. A Phase-Behavior for n-Hexane/Bitumen and n-Octane/Bitumen Mixtures. SPE J. 23 (1): 128–144. SPE-186097-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/186097-PA.
Gates, I. D. 2007. Oil Phase Viscosity Behaviour in Expanding-Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J Pet Sci Eng 59 (1–2): 123–134.
Gates, I. D. 2010. Solvent-Aided Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage in Thin Oil Sand Reservoirs. J Pet Sci Eng 74 (3–4): 138–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.03.006.
Ivory, J., Chang, J., Coates, R., and Forshner, K. 2010. Investigation of Cyclic Solvent Injection Process for Heavy Oil Recovery. J Can Pet Technol 49 (9): 22–23. SPE-140662-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/140662-PA.
Jha, R. K., Kumar, M., Benson, I. et al. 2013. New Insights into Steam/Solvent-Coinjection-Process Mechanism. SPE J. 18 (5): 867–877. SPE-159277-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/159277-PA.
Lemmon, E. W., McLinden, M. O., and Friend, D. G. 2012. Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems. In NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, ed. P. J. Linstrom and W. G. Mallard. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA: National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Li, X., Han, H., Yang, D. et al. 2017a. Phase Behavior of C3H8-CO2-Heavy Oil Systems in the Presence of Aqueous Phase under Reservoir Conditions. Fuel 209: 358–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.08.010.
Li, X., Li, H., and Yang, D. 2013a. Determination of Multiphase Boundaries and Swelling Factors of Solvent(s)-CO2-Heavy Oil Systems at High Pressures and Elevated Temperatures. Energy Fuels 27 (3): 1293–1306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12182-018-230-5.
Li, X. and Yang, D. 2013. Determination of Mutual Solubility between CO2 and Water by Using the Peng-Robinson Equation of State with Modified Alpha Function and Binary Interaction Parameter. Ind Eng Chem Res 52 (38): 13829–13838. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie401365n.
Li, X., Yang, D., and Fan, Z. 2017b. Vapor-Liquid Phase Boundaries and Swelling Factors of C3H8-n-C4H10-CO2-Heavy Oil Systems under Reservoir Conditions. Fluid Phase Equilib 434: 211–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2016.12.004.
Li, H., Zheng, S., and Yang, D. 2013b. Enhanced Swelling Effect and Viscosity Reduction of Solvent(s)/CO2/Heavy-Oil Systems. SPE J. 18 (4): 695–707. SPE-150168-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/150168-PA.
Luo, S. and Barrufet, M. A. 2005. Reservoir Simulation Study of Water-in-Oil Solubility Effect on Oil Recovery in Steam Injection Process. SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (6): 528–533. SPE-89407-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/89407-PA.
Mehrotra, A. K. and Svrcek, W. Y. 1988. Properties of Cold Lake Bitumen Saturated with Pure Gases and Gas Mixtures. Can J Chem Eng 66 (4): 656–665. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450660419.
Mohammadzadeh, O., Rezaei, N., and Chatzis, I. 2012. Production Characteristics of the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and Solvent-Aided SAGD (SA-SAGD) Processes Using a 2-D Macroscale Physical Model. Energy Fuels 26 (7): 4346–4365. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef300354j.
Mohebati, M. H., Maini, B. B., and Harding, T. G. 2010. Numerical Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Additives to Steam in the SAGD Process. J Can Pet Technol 49 (9): 42–55. SPE-140338-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/140338-PA.
Nasr, G., Beaulieu, H., and Golbeck, G. 2003. Novel Expanding Solvent-SAGD Process “ES-SAGD”. J Can Pet Technol 42 (1): 13–16. PETSOC-03-01-TN. https://doi.org/10.2118/03-01-TN.
Nourozieh, H. 2013. Phase Partitioning and Thermo-Physical Properties of Athabasca Bitumen/Solvent Mixtures. PhD dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2011. Physical Properties and Extraction Measurements for the Athabasca Bitumen + Light Hydrocarbon System: Evaluation of the Pressure Effect, Solvent-to-Bitumen Ratio, and Solvent Type. J Chem Eng Data 56 (11): 4261–4267. https://doi.org/10.1021/je2008846.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2015a. Density and Viscosity of Athabasca Bitumen Samples at Temperatures Up to 200°C and Pressures Up to 10 MPa. SPE Res Eval & Eng 18 (3): 375–386. SPE-176026-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/176026-PA.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2015b. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Phase Behavior for Propane/Athabasca Bitumen Mixtures. Fluid Phase Equilib 397: 37–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2015.03.047.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2016. Measurement and Modeling of Solubility and Saturated-Liquid Density and Viscosity for Methane/Athabasca-Bitumen Mixtures. SPE J. 21 (1): 180–189. SPE-174558-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/174558-PA.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2017. Solubility of n-Butane in Athabasca Bitumen and Saturated Densities and Viscosities at Temperatures Up to 200°C. SPE J. 22 (1): 94–102. SPE-180927-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/180927-PA.
Peng, D. Y. and Robinson D. B. 1976. A New-Constant Equation of State. Ind Eng Chem Fund 15 (1): 59–64. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Tamim, M. and Farouq Ali, S. M. 1998. A New Analytical Cyclic Steam Stimulation Model Including Formation Fracturing. J Can Pet Technol 37 (3): 31–40. PETSOC-98-03-02. https://doi.org/10.2118/98-03-02.
Twu, C. H. 1984. An Internally Consistent Correlation for Predicting the Critical Properties and Molecular Weights of Petroleum and Coal-Tar Liquids. Fluid Phase Equilib 16 (2): 137–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(84)85027-X.
Upreti, S. R., Lohi, A., Kapadia, R. A. et al. 2007. Vapor Extraction of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review. Energy Fuels 21 (3): 1562–1574. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef060341j.
Whitson, C. H. and Brule, M. R. 2000. Phase Behavior. Richardson, Texas, USA: Monograph Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Yan, W., Huang, S., and Stenby, E. H. 2011. Measurement and Modeling of CO2 Solubility in NaCl Brine and CO2-Saturated NaCl Brine Density. Int J Greenh Gas Con 5 (6): 1460–1477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2011.08.004.
Zirrahi, M., Hassanzadeh, H., and Abedi, J. 2017. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Water, Light n-Alkanes and MacKay River Bitumen Ternary Systems. Fuel 196: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.01.078.