Removal of Residual Oil from Produced Water Using Magnetic Nanoparticles
- Jared Theurer (University of Oklahoma) | Oluwatobi Ajagbe (University of Oklahoma) | Jhouly Osorio (University of Oklahoma) | Rida Elgaddafi (University of Oklahoma) | Ramadan Ahmed (University of Oklahoma) | Keisha Walters (University of Oklahoma) | Brandon Abbott (University of Oklahoma)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2,482 - 2,495
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- oil-removal, performance, maghemite, produced water, nanoparticles
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 17 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Recent studies have shown encouraging results using amine-coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles to remove residual oil from produced water using a magnetic field. However, the manufacturing of magnetite nanoparticles requires an expensive coating operation, which limits the application of this technology in large-scale treatment operations. The goal of this study is to develop a simple, efficient, and economically feasible method for removing oil from produced water using nanoparticles. Iron oxide nanoparticles are biocompatible and even safely used in medical applications. This study focuses on the removal of residual oil from produced water using uncoated, recyclable, and less expensive maghemite (𝛾-Fe2O3) nanoparticles. These particles have shown the potential for removing oil layers from the surface of water. However, they have not been tested for their capability of removing emulsified and dissolved oil from produced water.
In this study, commercial and synthesized maghemite nanoparticles were used. The maghemite nanoparticles were synthesized using the coprecipitation process. Laboratory-synthesized produced water samples with high oil concentration (1,000 ppm) were prepared by mixing medium oil with brine [1,180 ppm sodium chloride (NaCl) solution]. The nanoparticles were dispersed in 3% NaCl brine (w/w) at varying concentrations (0.31 to 5 mg/cm3) to form different nanosuspensions. Subsequently, the nanosuspensions were mixed with synthesized produced water for 10 minutes. When a magnetic field was applied to the mixture, a clear separation of the nanoparticles was observed within seconds. Residual oil in the samples was measured using nondispersive infrared spectroscopy.
Oil content analysis confirmed the successful (99.9%) removal of oil from laboratory-synthesized water samples. For the real produced water samples, results showed a reduction of oil content to an undetectable level (i.e., less than 0.1 ppm). The ease of nanoparticle collection and washing after subsequent water treatments further demonstrates the feasibility of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-based separations for large-scale use in produced water treatment operations. The unique finding of this study is the elimination of one additional step of synthesizing (amine coating) MNPs. Direct use of uncoated maghemite nanoparticles with high oil removal efficiency can reduce produced water treatment costs and promote this technology as an economically feasible option within the industry.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Bee, A., Massart, R., and Neveu, S. 1995. Synthesis of Very Fine Maghemite Particles. J Magn Magn Mater 149 (1–2): 6–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-8853(95)00317-7.
Cao, D., Li, H., Pan, L. et al. 2016. High Saturation Magnetization of γ-Fe2O3 Nano-Particles by a Facile One-Step Synthesis Approach. Sci Rep 6: 32360. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep32360.
Caparrós, C., Benelmekki, M., Martins, P. M. et al. 2012. Hydrothermal Assisted Synthesis of Iron Oxide-Based Magnetic Silica Spheres and Their Performance in Magnetophoretic Water Purification. Mater Chem Phys 135 (2–3): 510–517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2012.05.016.
Chakrabarti, S., Ganguli, D., and Chaudhuri, S. 2004. Optical Properties of γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles Dispersed on Sol–Gel Silica Spheres. Phys E 24 (3–4): 333–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physe.2004.06.036.
Chin, A. B. and Yaacob, I. I. 2007. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles via w/o Microemulsion and Massart’s Procedure. J Mater Process Technol 191 (1–3): 235–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.03.011.
Chun, C. L. and Park, J. W. 2001. Oil Spill Remediation Using Magnetic Separation. J Environ Chem Eng 127 (5): 443–449. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2001)127:5(443).
Darezereshki, E. 2010. Synthesis of Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) Nanoparticles by Wet Chemical Method at Room Temperature. Mater Lett 64 (13): 1471−1472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2010.03.064.
Darezereshki, E. 2011. One-Step Synthesis of Hematite (α-Fe2O3) Nano-Particles by Direct Thermal-Decomposition of Maghemite. Mater Lett 65 (4): 642−645. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2010.11.030.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2019. Study of Oil and Gas Extraction Wastewater Management Under the Clean Water Act. EPA-821-R19-001, Draft Report, Engineering and Analysis Division, Office of Water, US EPA, Washington, DC, USA (May 2019). https://epa.gov/sites/production/files/2019-05/documents/oil-and-gas-study_draft_05-2019.pdf (accessed 29 July 2020).
Goh, P. S., Ong, C. S., Ng, B. C. et al. 2019. Applications of Emerging Nanomaterials for Oily Wastewater Treatment. In Nanotechnolgy Water Wastewater Treatment, 101–113. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.
Gubin, S. P. 2009. Magnetic Nanoparticles. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley VCH-Verlag GmbH and Co.
Hariani, P. L., Faizal, M., Ridwan, R. et al. 2013. Synthesis and Properties of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles by Co-Precipitation Method to Removal Procion Dye. Int J Environ Sci Dev 4 (3): 336–340. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJESD.2013.V4.366.
Hsieh, T.-H., Ho, K.-S., Bi, X. et al. 2009. Synthesis and Electromagnetic Properties of Polyaniline-Coated Silica/Maghemite Nanoparticles. Eur Polym J 45 (3): 613–620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.12.039.
ImageJ. Version IJ 1.46. 2012. The National Institutes of Health and the Laboratory for Optical and Computational Instrumentation. https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/ (accessed 26 July 2012).
JADE. 2017. Complete XRD Analysis Software. Livermore, California, USA: Materials Data, Inc.
Kang, Y. S., Risbud, S., Rabolt, J. F. et al. 1996. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanometer-Size Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 Particles. Chem Mater 8 (9): 2209–2211. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm960157j.
Ko, S., Kim, E. S., Park, S. et al. 2017. Amine Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles for Removal of Oil Droplets from Produced Water and Accelerated Magnetic Separation. J Nanopart Res 19 (4): 132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-017-3826-6.
Layek, S., Pandey, A., Pandey, A. et al. 2010. Synthesis of γ–Fe2O3 Nanoparticles with Crystallographic and Magnetic Texture. Int J Eng Sci Tech 2 (8): 33–39.
Li, S., Li, N., Yang, S. et al. 2014. The Synthesis of a Novel Magnetic Demulsifier and Its Application for the Demulsification of Oil-Charged Industrial Wastewaters. J Mater Chem A 2 (1): 94–99. https://doi.org/10.1039/C3TA12952G.
Lu, H. M., Zheng, W. T., and Jiang, Q. 2007. Saturation Magnetization of Ferromagnetic and Ferromagnetic Nanocrystals at Room Temperature. J Phys D Appl Phys 40 (2): 320–325. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/40/2/006.
Lu, T., Zhang, S., Qi, D. et al. 2017. Synthesis of pH-Sensitive and Recyclable Magnetic Nanoparticles for Efficient Separation of Emulsified Oil from Aqueous Environments. Appl Surf Sci 396: 1604–1612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.11.223.
Maleki, H., Simchi, A., Imani, M. et al. 2012. Size-Controlled Synthesis of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Surface Coating by Gold for Biomedical Applications. J Magn Magn Mater 324 (23): 3997–4005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2012.06.045.
Mascolo, M. C., Pei, Y., and Ring, T. A. 2013. Room Temperature Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles in a Large pH Window with Different Base. Materials 6 (12): 5549–5567. https:/doi.org/10.3390/ma6125549.
Morales, M. P., Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S., Montero, M. I. et al. 1999. Surface and Internal Spin Canting in γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles. Chem Mater 11 (11): 3058–3064. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm991018f.
Namduri, H. and Nasrazadani, S. 2008. Quantitative Analysis of Iron Oxides Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry. Corros Sci 50 (9): 2493–2497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2008.06.034.
Nazari, M., Ghasemi, N., Maddah, H. et al. 2014. Synthesis and Characterization of Maghemite Nanopowders by Chemical Precipitation Method. J Nanostruct Chem 4: 99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40097-014-0099-9.
Ni, Y., Ge, X., Zhang, Z. et al. 2002. Fabrication and Characterization of the Plate-Shaped γ-Fe2O3 Nanocrystals. Chem Mater 14 (3): 1048–1052. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm010446u.
Nurdin, I., Johan, M. R., Yaacob, I. I. et al. 2014. Effect of Nitric Acid Concentrations on Synthesis and Stability of Maghemite Nanoparticles Suspension. Sci World J 2014: 589479. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/589479.
Nurdin, I., Ridwan, S., and Satriananda, S. 2016. The Effect of Temperature on Synthesis and Stability of Superparamagnetic Maghemite Nanoparticles Suspension. J Mater Sci Chem Eng 4 (3): 35–41. https://doi.org/10.4236/msce.2016.43005.
Predoi, D., Kuncser, V., and Filoti, G. 2004. Magnetic Behaviour of Maghemite Nanoparticles Studied by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Rom Rep Phys 56 (3): 373–378. http://www.rrp.infim.ro/2004_56_3/Predoi.pdf (accessed 29 July 2020).
Shayan, N. N. and Mirzayi, B. 2015. Adsorption and Removal of Asphaltene Using Synthesized Maghemite and Hematite Nanoparticles. Energy Fuels 29 (3): 1397–1406. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef502494d.
Silva, M. F., de Oliveira, L. A. S., Ciciliati, M. A. et al. 2013a. Nanometric Particle Size and Phase Controlled Synthesis and Characterization of γ-Fe2O3 or (α + γ)-Fe2O3 by a Modified Sol-Gel Method. J Appl Phys 114 (10): 104311. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4821253.
Silva, M. F., Hechenleitner, A. A. W., de Oliveira, D. M. F. et al. 2013b. Optimization of Maghemite-Loaded PLGA Nanospheres for Biomedical Applications. Eur J Pharm Sci 49 (3): 343–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2013.04.006.
Sohrabijam, Z., Zamanian, A., Saidifar, M. et al. 2015. Preparation and Characterization of Superparamagnetic Chitosan Coated Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) for Gene Delivery. Procedia Mater Sci 11: 282–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mspro.2015.11.051.
Tartaj, P., Morales, M. P., Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S. et al. 2003. The Preparation of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Applications in Biomedicine. J Phys D: Appl Phys 36 (13): R182–197. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/36/13/202.
Taylor, P. and Owen, D. G. 1997. Comparison of the Solubilities of Synthetic Hematite (α-Fe2O3) and Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3). No. AECL-11668. Chalk River, Ontario, Canada: Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.
Teja, A. S. and Koh, P.-Y. 2009. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Prog Cryst Growth Charact Mater 55 (1–2): 22−45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcrysgrow.2008.08.003.
Veil, J. A., Puder, M. G., and Elcock, D. 2004. A White Paper Describing Produced Water from Production of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal Bed Methane. Argonne National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, http://www.evs.anl.gov/publications/doc/ProducedWatersWP0401.pdf.
Villa, S., Riani, P., Locardi, F. et al. 2016. Functionalization of Fe3O4 NPs by Silanization: Use of Amine (APTES) and Thiol (MPTMS) Silanes and Their Physical Characterization. Materials 9 (10): 826. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100826.
Wang, Q., Prigiobbe, V., Huh, C. et al. 2014. Removal of Divalent Cations from Brine Using Selective Adsorption onto Magnetic Nanoparticles. Paper presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 10–12 December. IPTC-17901-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17901-MS.
Wang, Q., Puerto, M. C., Warudkar, S. et al. 2018. Recyclable Amine-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles for Efficient Demulsification of Crude Oil-in-Water Emulsions. Environ Sci: Water Res Technol 4 (10): 1553–1563.
Woo, K., Hong, J., Choi, S. et al. 2004. Easy Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Chem Mater 16 (14): 2814–2818. 10.1021/cm049552x.
Wu, Z. and Gao, J. 2012. Synthesis of γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles by Homogeneous Co-Precipitation Method. The Institution of Engineering and Technology. Micro Nano Lett 7 (6): 533–535. https://doi.org/10.1049/mnl.2012.0310.
Xu, J., Yang, H., Fu, W. et al. 2007. Preparation and Magnetic Properties of Magnetite Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method. J Magn Magn Mater 309 (2): 307–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2006.07.037.
Zhang, H. and Zhu, G. 2012. One-Step Hydrothermal Synthesis of Magnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Immobilized on Polyamide Fabric. Appl Surf Sci 258 (11): 4952–4959. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.01.127.
Zhang, Y., Li, L., Ma, W. et al. 2013. Two-in-One Strategy for Effective Enrichment of Phosphopeptides Using Magnetic Mesoporous γ-Fe2O3 Nanocrystal Clusters. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5 (3): 614–621. https://doi.org/10.1021/am3019806.
Zhong, L.-S., Hu, J.-S., Liang, H.-P. et al. 2006. Self-Assembled 3D Flowerlike Iron Oxide Nanostructures and Their Application in Water Treatment. Adv Mater 18 (18): 2426–2431. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200600504.