The Influx-Management Envelope Considering Real-Fluid Behavior
- Christian Berg (University of SouthEastern Norway, Kelda Drilling Controls) | Geir Arne Evjen (Kelda Drilling Controls) | Naveen Velmurugan (MINES ParisTech) | Martin Culen (Blade Energy Partners)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- June 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 136 - 150
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- managed pressure drilling, kick tolerance, real gas equation of state, influx management envelope, well control
- 43 in the last 30 days
- 88 since 2007
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The influx-management envelope (IME), Culen et al. (2016), is a decision-making tool for how to deal with an influx during managed-pressure-drilling (MPD) operations that offers a substantial improvement over the traditional MPD well-control matrix (WCM). However, in the case study by Gabaldon et al. (2017), it has been found that the simplified analytical solution introduced by Culen et al. (2016) makes the IME inaccurate for many real-world applications. This paper extends the original IME that considers the gas migration in the annulus as a single bubble, without making the simplifying assumptions that are required to make the equations explicit and analytically solvable. The underlying equations that are required to develop the IME are derived from first principles, and it is shown that using realistic equations of state (EOSs) for gas, and a single-bubble-type model, the equations for the IME can be numerically solved yielding less conservative limits. The proposed approach is significantly faster than constructing the IME through high-fidelity simulations. The proposed method allows for the calculation of a peak circulating pressure at the surface and the maximum weak-point pressure for a given kick size and initial shut-in pressure, as well as a kick envelope with respect to formation limits. This makes the contributions of this paper also relevant for traditional well-control situations. The effect of considering various simplifying assumptions on the resulting IME is studied, and different scenarios that compare the results of the proposed approach with that of the original single-bubble equation for the IME (Culen et al. 2016) are presented.
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