Flow-Regime-Based Inflow-Performance Relationships of Unconventional Fractured Reservoirs
- Salam Al-Rbeawi (Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Turkey)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- October 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- transient state production, unconventional reservoirs, reservoir performance, hydraulically fractured formations, inflow performance relationships
- 12 in the last 30 days
- 50 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The main objective of this paper is to develop a new approach for constructing the inflow-performance relationships (IPRs) of unconventional reservoirs. The proposed approach focuses on using transient- and pseudosteady-state-flow regimes in developing integrated analytical models for wellhead deliverability and wellbore-pressure decline considering the two wellbore conditions, constant-sandface- flow rate and constant wellbore pressure. The motivation is to reduce the uncertainties in predicting current and future performance of unconventional reservoirs.
Three tasks are conducted in this study for achieving the objective of this paper. The first task includes generating the pressure behavior of the reservoirs of interest using a trilinear-flow model. The pressure behavior helps in characterizing the flow regimes that could be developed during the entire life of production and estimating the time interval elapsed by each flow regime. The second task concentrates on developing integrated analytical models for these flow regimes and using these models for predicting the IPR at the end of the time interval of each flow regime. The third task deals with constructing the IPRs at any time and any flow regime, considering different reservoir conditions. For constructing the IPR during bilinear- and linear-flow regimes wherein most of the production is dominated by these two flow regimes, two new functions are developed. The first is the pressure function (P), which represents the change in pressure with time for constant production rate, whereas the second represents the change in flow rate with time for constant wellbore pressure, and is called the flow-rate function (q). The effects of hydraulic-fracture characteristics, reservoir configurations, and the dominant flow pattern—whether it is Darcy or non-Darcy flow—are considered in constructing these IPRs.
The observations of this study can be summarized as the following:
• The IPRs for all transient-flow regimes exhibit linear behavior at a specific production time, even in the cases where non-Darcy flow is the dominant flow pattern and the reservoirs are characterized by high skin factor. However, considering the change in the reservoir and reservoir-fluid properties with time and pressure might cause some deviation from this linear behavior.
• The IPRs obtained by applying a constant-sandface-flow rate are slightly better than the IPRs obtained by applying constant wellbore pressure.
• The IPRs of bilinear- and linear-flow regimes are more applicable for unconventional reservoirs than the IPRs of the hydraulic-fracture linear-flow regime and pseudosteady-state-flow regime because the former might not be developed for a long production time and the latter might not be reached.
The novel points presented by this study are the following:
• Introducing an approach for constructing the IPRs during transient-state flow when the wellbore conditions deteriorate continuously
• Introducing two new functions for constructing the IPRs during bilinear-flow and linear-flow regimes: pressure function for constant-sandface-flow rate and flow-rate function for constant wellbore pressure.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||27|
Al-Rbeawi, S. 2017a. How Much Stimulated Reservoir Volume and Induced Matrix Permeability Could Enhance Unconventional Reservoir Performance. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 46 (October): 764–781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2017.08.017.
Al-Rbeawi, S. 2017b. Analysis of Pressure Behaviors and Flow Regimes of Naturally and Hydraulically Fractured Unconventional Gas Reservoirs Using Multilinear-Flow Regimes Approach. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 45 (September): 637–658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2017.06.026.
Al-Rbeawi, S. 2018a. Performance-Based Comparison for Hydraulically Fractured Tight and Shale-Gas Reservoirs with and without Non-Darcy-Flow Effect. SPE Res Eval & Eng 21 (4): 981–1006. SPE-194011-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/194011-PA.
Al-Rbeawi, S. 2018b. Bivariate Log-Normal Distribution of Stimulated Matrix Permeability and Block Size in Fractured Reservoirs: Proposing New Multilinear-Flow Regime for Transient-State Production. SPE J. 23 (4): 1316–1342. SPE-189993-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/189993-PA.
Bello, R. O. and Wattenbarger, R. A. 2010. Multi-Stage Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Shale Gas Well Rate Transient Analysis. Paper presented at the North Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition, Cairo, Egypt, 14–17 February. SPE-126754-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/126754-MS.
Brown, M., Ozkan, E., Raghavan, R. et al. 2011. Practical Solutions for Pressure-Transient Responses of Fractured Horizontal Wells in Unconventional Shale Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (6): 663–676. SPE-125043-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/125043-PA.
Camacho V., R. G. and Raghavan, R. 1989. Inflow Performance Relationships for Solution-Gas-Drive Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 41 (5): 541–550. SPE-16204-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/16204-PA.
Camacho Velazquez, R., Fuentes-Cruz, G., and Vasquez-Cruz, M. A. 2008. Decline-Curve Analysis of Fractured Reservoirs with Fractal Geometry. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (3): 606–619. SPE-104009-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/104009-PA.
de Swaan O., A. 1976. Analytic Solutions for Determining Naturally Fractured Reservoir Properties by Well Testing. SPE J. 16 (3): 117–122. SPE-5346-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/5346-PA.
Economides, M. J., Hill, A. D., Ehlig-Economides, C. et al. 2013. Petroleum Production Systems, second edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA: Pearson Education.
El-Banbi, A. H. 1998. Analysis of Tight Gas Wells. PhD dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.
Escobar, F. H., Cabrera, M. A., and Ortiz, A. J. 2018. Pressure Derivative Analysis for Horizontal Wells in Shale Reservoirs Under Trilinear Flow Conditions. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 13 (10): 3426–3434.
Fetkovich, M. J. 1973. The Isochronal Testing of Oil Wells. Paper presented at the Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 30 September–3 October. SPE-4529-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/4529-MS.
Forchheimer, P. 1901. Wasserbewegung Durch Boden. Ziets V. Deutsch Ing. 45: 1782–1788.
Fuentes-Cruz, G. and Valko, P. P. 2015. Revisiting the Dual-Porosity/Dual-Permeability Modeling of Unconventional Reservoirs: The Induced-Interporosity Flow Field. SPE J. 20 (1): 125–141. SPE-173895-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173895-PA.
Fuentes-Cruz, G., Gildin, E., and Valko, P. P. 2014. Analyzing Production Data from Hydraulically Fractured Wells: The Concept of Induced Permeability Field. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (2): 220–232. SPE-163843-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/163843-PA.
Gallice, F. and Wiggins, M. L. 2004. A Comparison of Two-Phase Inflow Performance Relationships. SPE Prod & Fac 19 (2): 100–104. SPE-88445-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/88445-PA.
Golan, M. and Whitson C. H. 1991. Well Performance, second edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.
Hagoort, J. 2004. Non-Darcy Flow Near Hydraulically Fractured Wells. SPE J. 9 (2): 180–185. SPE-80419-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/80419-PA.
Helmy, M. W. and Wattenbarger, R. A. 1998. New Shape Factors for Wells Produced at Constant Pressure. Paper presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, Canada, 15–18 March. SPE-39970-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39970-MS.
Jones, L. G., Blount, E. M., and Glaze, O. H. 1976. Use of Short Term Multiple Rate Flow Tests To Predict Performance of Wells Having Turbulence. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 3–6 October. SPE-6133-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/6133-MS.
Klins, M. A. and Majcher, M. W. 1992. Inflow Performance Relationships for Damaged or Improved Wells Producing Under Solution-Gas Drive. J Pet Technol 44 (12): 1357–1363. SPE-19852-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/19852-PA.
Kuchuk, F. and Biryukov, D. 2015. Pressure-Transient Tests and Flow Regimes in Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 18 (2): 187–204. SPE-166296-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/166296-PA.
Kuchuk, F., Morton, K., and Biryukov, D. 2016. Rate-Transient Analysis for Multistage Fractured Horizontal Wells in Conventional and Un-Conventional Homogeneous and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, UAE, 26–28 September. SPE-181488-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181488-MS.
Luo, W. and Tang, C. 2015. A Semianalytical Solution of a Vertical Fractured Well with Varying Conductivity Under Non-Darcy-Flow Condition. SPE J. 20 (5): 1028–1040. SPE-178423-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/178423-PA.
Medeiros, F., Ozkan, E., and Kazemi, H. 2008. Productivity and Drainage Area of Fractured Horizontal Wells in Tight Gas Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (5): 902–911. SPE-108110-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/108110-PA.
Mohan, J., Pope, G. A., and Sharma, M. M. 2009. Effect of Non-Darcy Flow on Well Productivity of a Hydraulically Fractured Gas-Condensate Well. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (4): 576–585. SPE-103025-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/103025-PA.
Ozkan, E., Brown, M. L., Raghavan, R. et al. 2011. Comparison of Fractured-Horizontal-Well Performance in Tight Sand and Shale Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (2): 248–256. SPE-121290-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/121290-PA.
Rawlins, E. L. and Schellhardt, M. A. 1935. Backpressure Data on Natural Gas Wells and Their Application to Production Practices. Monograph 7. Washington, DC, USA: US Bureau of Mines.
Serra, K., Reynolds, A. C., and Raghavan, R. 1983. New Pressure Transient Analysis Methods for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs (includes associated papers 12940 and 13014). J Pet Technol 35 (12): 2271–2283. SPE-10780-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/10780-PA.
Shahamat, M. S., Tabatabaie, S. H., Mattar, L. et al. 2015. Inflow Performance Relationship for Unconventional Reservoirs (Transient IPR). Paper presented at the SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 20–22 October. SPE-175975-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175975-MS.
Stalgorova, K. and Mattar, L. 2013. Analytical Model for Unconventional Multifractured Composite Systems. SPE Res Eval & Eng 16 (3): 246–256. SPE-162516-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/162516-PA.
Standing, M. B. 1971. Concerning the Calculation of Inflow Performance of Wells Producing from Solution Gas Drive Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 23 (9): 1141–1142. SPE-3332-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3332-PA.
Stehfest, H. 1970. Algorithm 368: Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transforms. Commun ACM 13 (1): 47–49. https://doi.org/10.1145/361953.361969.
Uzun, I., Kurtoglu, B., and Kazemi, H. 2016. Multiphase Rate-Transient Analysis in Unconventional Reservoirs: Theory and Application. SPE Res Eval & Eng 19 (4): 553–566. SPE-171657-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/171657-PA.
Van Everdingen, A. and Hurst, W. 1949. The Application of the Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 1 (12): 305–324. SPE-949305-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/949305-G.
Vogel, J. V. 1968. Inflow Performance Relationships for Solution-Gas Drive Wells. J Pet Technol 20 (1): 83–92. SPE-1476-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1476-PA.
Wiggins, M. L., Russell, J. E., and Jennings, J. W. 1996. Analytical Development of Vogel-Type Inflow Performance Relationships. SPE J. 1 (4): 355–362. SPE-23580-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/23580-PA.
Zhang, F. and Yang, D. 2014. Determination of Fracture Conductivity in Tight Formations with Non-Darcy Flow Behavior. SPE J. 19 (1): 34–44. SPE-162548-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/162548-PA.
Zhou, W., Banerjee, R., and Proano, E. 2016. Nodal Analysis for Unconventional Reservoirs—Principles and Application. SPE J. 21 (1): 245–255. https://doi.org/10.2118/171768-PA.