The Effect of Resin-Coated Proppant and Proppant Production on Convergent-Flow Skin in Horizontal Wells With Transverse Fractures
- Josef R. Shaoul (Fenix Consulting Delft) | Jason Park (Fenix Consulting Delft) | Marc Langford (Spirit Energy)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- May 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 214 - 230
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- horizontal well, hydraulic fracturing, convergent flow, non-Darcy multiphase, transverse fractures
- 15 in the last 30 days
- 134 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
In the last decade, many gas reservoirs with permeabilities from 0.1 to 10 md have been developed with horizontal wells with transverse fractures. The potential negative effect of convergent flow in the fractures seems to have been forgotten. The widespread use of resin-coated proppant (RCP) in offshore wells appears to make this problem worse. Using both case studies and reservoir simulations, we examine why RCP could make the problem of convergent flow worse compared with uncoated proppant.
Several North Sea horizontal and deviated multifracture gas wells that used RCP and had a significant mechanical skin are presented. Pressure-buildup data confirm the presence of a near-wellbore pressure drop in the fractures. Reservoir simulation with a fine grid reproduces the observed pressure drop because of convergent flow, using realistic proppant-pack permeabilities with gel damage.
The effect of proppant production on the convergent-flow skin is shown using production data before and after discrete proppant-production events, demonstrating how proppant production has a beneficial effect on removing convergent-flow skin. We also compare the performance of a new horizontal multifracture well to the original discovery well in the same location, in which a vertical well was fracture stimulated with uncoated proppant and had comparable productivity.
If there is a large convergent-flow skin in a fracture with uncoated proppant, this usually leads to some proppant production, which could create “infinite conductivity” channels at the perforations. This removes the convergent-flow pressure drop. If RCP is used to prevent proppant flowback, such channels cannot form easily, and convergent flow acts as a downhole “choke” on production. This “choke” can produce a significant positive skin. In the worst case, a horizontal multifracture well with three or four transverse fractures can produce the same as a fully perforated vertical well with a single fracture.
On the basis of a number of real-world incidents of proppant production during post-fracture cleanup, we show strong evidence that a small amount of proppant production can result in an increase in well productivity index (PI) and a decrease in apparent fracture skin. Convergent flow is the most likely mechanism to explain this. In this paper we highlight the potential reduction in well productivity from using RCP for fracturing in gas wells (0.1 to 10 md) with limited inflow area (transverse or oblique fractures), where convergent-flow pressure loss is significant. We show the potential positive effect of small amounts of proppant production in such cases, forming infinite-conductivity channels and removing the convergent-flow skin.
|File Size||5 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Al-Shamma, B., Nicole, H., Nurafza, P. R. et al. 2014. Evaluation of Multi-Fractured Horizontal Well Performance: Babbage Field Case Study. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-168623-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168623-MS.
Barree, R. D. and Conway, M. 2007. Multiphase Non-Darcy Flow in Proppant Packs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11–14 November. SPE-109561-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/109561-MS.
Britt, L. K. and Smith, M. B. 2009. Horizontal Well Completion, Stimulation Optimization, and Risk Mitigation. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Charleston, West Virginia, 23–25 September. SPE-125526-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/125526-MS.
Clayton, F. M. and Gordon, N. C. 1990. The Leman F and G Development: Obtaining Commercial Production Rates From a Tight Gas Reservoir. Presented at the European Petroleum Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 21–24 October. SPE-20993-MS. http://doi.org/10.2118/20993-MS.
Cooke, C. E. 1973. Conductivity of Fracture Proppants in Multiple Layers. J Pet Technol 25 (9): 1–7. SPE-4117-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4117-PA.
de Pater, C. J., Hagoort, J. J., Abou Sayed, I. S. et al. 1993. Propped Fracture Stimulation in Deviated North Sea Gas Wells. Presented at the Offshore Europe Meeting, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 7–10 September. SPE-26794-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/26794-MS.
Economides, M. and Martin, A. N. 2010. How To Decide Between Horizontal Transverse, Horizontal Longitudinal, and Vertical Fractured Completions. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-134424-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/134424-MS.
Howard, P. R., James, S. G., and Milton-Tayler, D. 1998. High Permeability Channels in Proppant Packs Containing Random Fibers. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Conference, Lafayette, Louisiana, 18–19 February. SPE-39591-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39591-MS.
Howard, P. R., James, S. G., and Milton-Tayler, D. 1999. High-Permeability Channels in Proppant Packs Containing Random Fibers. SPE Prod & Fac 14 (3): 1–6. SPE-57392-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/57392-PA.
James, S. G., Lee, C., Howard, P. R. et al. 2000. Interaction Between Growing Channels in Proppant Packs: Length and Number of Channels. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 23–24 February. SPE-58756-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/58756-MS.
Jones, P., Symonds, R., Talbot, D. et al. 2015. Successful Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation of Yoredale Carboniferous Sands in the UKCS. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, Budapest, Hungary, 3–5 June. SPE-174171-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174171-MS.
Kassim, S. K., Britt, K., Dunn-Norman, S. et al. 2016. Multiphase Flow Performance Comparison of Multiple Fractured Transverse Horizontal Wells vs Longitudinal Wells in Tight and Unconventional Reservoirs With Stress Dependent Permeability. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Hydraulic Fracturing Conference, Beijing, China, 24–26 August. SPE-181813-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181813-MS.
Lolon, E. P., Chipperfield, S. T., McVay, D. A. et al. 2004. The Significance of Non-Darcy and Multiphase Flow Effects in High-Rate, Frac-Pack Gas Completions. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 26–29 September. SPE-90530-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/90530-MS.
Martins, J. P., Abel, J. C., Dyke, C. G. et al. 1992. Deviated Well Fracturing and Proppant Production Control in the Prudhoe Bay Field. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, 4–7 October. SPE-24858-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/24858-MS.
Martins, J. P., Milton-Taylor, D., and Leung, H. K. 1990. The Effects of Non-Darcy Flow in Propped Hydraulic Fractures. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 23–26 September. SPE-20709-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/20709-MS.
Milton-Tayler, D., Stephenson, C., and Asgian, M. I. 1992. Factors Affecting the Stability of Proppant in Propped Fractures: Results of a Laboratory Study. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, 4–7 October. SPE-24821-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/24821-MS.
NLOG. 1986a. NAM L13-09 Composite Log. NLOG: The Netherlands. www.nlog.nl (accessed 21 February 2018).
NLOG. 1986b. Zoeken naar EXPRO L13-09 Well Testing Production Test Report. NLOG: The Netherlands. www.nlog.nl (accessed 21 February 2018).
Norris, M. R., Berntsen, B. A., Myhre, P. et al. 1996. Multiple Proppant Fracturing of a Horizontal Wellbore: An Integration of Two Technologies. Presented at the European Petroleum Conference, Milan, Italy, 22–24 October. SPE-36899-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/36899-MS.
Olson, K. E., Haidar, S., Milton-Tayler, D. et al. 2004. Multiphase Non-Darcy Pressure Drop in Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 26–29 September. SPE-90406-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/90406-MS.
Osiptsov, A., Zilonova, E., Boronin, S. et al. D. 2016. Insights on Overflushing Strategies From a Novel Modeling Approach to Displacement of Yield-Stress Fluids in a Fracture. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, UAE, 26–28 September. SPE-181454-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181454-MS.
Ovens, J. E. V. 1993. The Performance of Hydraulically Fractured Stimulated Wells in Tight Gas Sands: A Southern North Sea Example. SPE Form Eval 8 (3): 208–214. SPE-20972-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/20972-PA.
Palisch, T. T., Duenckel, R. J., Bazan, L. W. et al. 2007. Determining Realistic Fracture Conductivity and Understanding Its Impact on Well Performance—Theory and Field Examples. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, College Station, Texas, 29–31 January. SPE-106301-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106301-MS.
Palisch, T. T., Vincent, M. C., Zakharov, A. Y. et al. 2006. Designing Hydraulic Fractures in Russian Oil and Gas Fields To Accommodate Non-Darcy and Multiphase Flow—Theory and Field Examples. Presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, Russia, 3–6 October. SPE-101821-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/101821-MS.
Schrama, E., Naughton-Rumbo, R., van der Bas, F. et al. 2011. First True Tight Gas (< 0.1 mD) Horizontal Multiple Fracture Well in the North Sea. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 7–10 June. SPE-143166-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/143166-MS.
Schulte, W. M. 1986. Production From a Fractured Well With Well Inflow Limited to Part of the Fracture Height. SPE Prod Eng 9 (5): 333–344. SPE-12882-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/12882-PA.
Shaoul, J., Park, J., Bakhtiyarov, A. et al. 2013. Clipper South Field: Fracturing Operations and Production Matching in a Low Permeability, Sandstone Gas Reservoir in the North Sea. Presented at the EAGE Annual Conference & Exhibition, London, United Kingdom, 10–13 June. SPE-164826-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164826-MS.
van Gijtenbeek, K. A. W., Shaoul, J. R., and de Pater, C. J. 2012. Overdisplacing Propped Fracture Treatments—Good Practice or Asking for Trouble? Presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4–7 June. SPE-154397-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154397-MS.
van Gijtenbeek, K., Taku, K., Langford, M. et al. 2016. Successful Execution and Analysis of a Multistage Frac Treatment in a Horizontal Gas Well in the Grove Field, UK Southern North Sea. Presented at the SPE Europec featured at the 78th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 30 May–2 June. SPE-180153-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180153-MS.
van Poollen, H. K., Tinsley, J. M., and Saunders, C. D. 1958. Hydraulic Fracturing—Fracture Flow Capacity vs. Well Productivity. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE-890-G. (orig. AIME Petroleum Transactions 213: 91–95).
Veeken, C. A. M., Davies, D. R., and Walters, J. V. 1989. Limited Communication Between Hydraulic Fracture and (Deviated) Wellbore. Presented at the Low Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, Colorado, 6–8 March. SPE-18982-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/18982-MS.
Vreeburg, R.-J., Roodhart, L. P., Davies, D. R. et al. 1994. Proppant Backproduction During Hydraulic Fracturing—A New Failure Mechanism for Resin-Coated Proppants. J Pet Technol 46 (10): 1–6. SPE-27382-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/27382-PA.