Can Gas Permeability of Fractured Shale Be Determined Accurately by Testing Core Plugs, Drill Cuttings, and Crushed Samples?
- Faruk Civan (University of Oklahoma)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 720 - 732
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Gas-Permeability, Testing of Core Plugs, Fractured-Shale, Drill Cuttings, Crushed Samples
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 235 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Determining the nanodarcy gas permeability and other parameters of naturally and hydraulically induced fractured shale formations by testing the pressure transmission of core plugs, drill cuttings, and crushed samples is discussed. The author reviewed and modified the available methods for interpreting pressure tests with an emphasis on the differences between intrinsic and apparent permeability, and the generally overlooked temperature effects. It is significant to note that the temperature of gas varies during transport through porous rock samples and various dead-volumes when testing equipment used for permeability measurement is involved; this is because of unavoidable viscous dissipation and Joule-Thomson effects. Improved formulations and analysis methods that honor the relevant physics of gas transport and interactions with shale are presented, for both the generally assumed isothermal conditions and the realistic case of nonisothermal conditions. These improved formulations provide valuable insights when comparing and evaluating the currently available equations used for permeability calculations with the experimental data obtained by various testing methods. Better design and analysis of experiments for simultaneously determining several unknown parameters that impact the transport calculations, including deformation, adsorption, diffusion, viscous dissipation, Joule-Thomson effect, and deviation from Darcy flow, are described. It is recommended that the permeability and other parameters of shale samples be determined by simultaneous analysis of multiple pressure tests conducted under different conditions to accommodate temporally and spatially variable conditions by consideration of the temperature effect. The inherent limitations of the methods that rely on analytical solutions of the diffusivity equation on the basis of Darcy’s law are also explained.
|File Size||280 KB||Number of Pages||13|
Al-Hadhrami, A. K., Elliott, L., and Ingham, D. B. 2003. New Model for Viscous Dissipation in Porous Media Across a Range of Permeability Values. Transport Porous Med. 53 (1): 117–122. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023557332542.
Akkutlu, I. Y. and Fathi, E. 2012. Multiscale Gas Transport in Shales With Local Kerogen Heterogeneities. SPE J. 17 (4): 1002–1011. SPE-146422-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/146422-PA.
App, J. F. 2009. Field Cases: Nonisothermal Behavior Due to Joule-Thomson and Transient Fluid Expansion/Compression Effects. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4–7 October. SPE-124338-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/124338-MS.
App, J. F. 2010. Nonisothermal and Productivity Behavior of High Pressure Reservoirs. SPE J. 15 (1): 50–63. SPE-114705-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/114705-PA.
Beskok, A. and Karniadakis, G. E. 1999. Model for Flows in Channels, Pipes, and Ducts at Micro and Nano Scales. Nanosc. Microsc. Therm. 3 (1): 43–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/108939599199864.
Brace, W. F., Walsh, J. B., and Frangos, W. T. 1968. Permeability of Granite Under High Pressure. J. Geophys. Res. 73 (6): 2225–2236. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB073i006p02225.
Byerlee, J. D. and Zoback, M. D. 1975. Permeability and Effective Stress: Geologic Notes. AAPG Bull 59 (1): 154–158. https://doi.org/10.1306/83D91C40-16C7-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
Carles, P., Egermann P., Lenormand, R. et al. 2007. Low Permeability Measurements Using Steady-State and Transient Methods. Presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Calgary, 10–12 September. SCA2007-07.
Cicha-Szot, R., Dudek, L., and Such, P. 2015. Permeability Estimation in Shale Formations on the Basis of Desorption Data and Radial Gas Flow Model. Nafta-Gaz. 71 (11): 833–839. https://doi.org/10.18668/NG2015.11.04.
Civan, F. 2008. Correlation of Permeability Loss by Thermally Induced Compaction Due to Grain Expansion. Petrophysics J. 49 (4): 351–361. SPWLA-2008-v49n4a3.
Civan, F. 2010. Effective Correlation of Apparent Gas Permeability in Low-Permeability Porous Media. Transport Porous Med. 82 (2): 375–384. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-009-9432-z.
Civan, F. 2011. Porous Media Transport Phenomena. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Civan, F. 2014. Analyses of Processes, Mechanisms, and Preventive Measures of Shale-Gas Reservoir Fluid, Completion, and Formation Damage. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–28 February. SPE-168164-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168164-MS.
Civan, F. 2016. Reservoir Formation Damage—Fundamentals, Modeling, Assessment, and Mitigation, third edition. Burlington, Massachusetts: Gulf Professional Publishing, Elsevier.
Civan, F. and Devegowda, D. 2014. Rigorous Modeling and Data Analysis for Accurate Determination of Shale-Matrix Gas-Permeability by Multiple-Repeated Pressure-Pulse Transmission Tests on Crushed Samples. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 27–29 October. SPE-170659-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170659-MS.
Civan, F. and Devegowda, D. 2015. Comparison of Shale Permeability to Gas Determined by Pressure-Pulse Transmission Testing of Core Plugs and Crushed Samples. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 20–22 July. URTEC-2154049-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2015-2154049.
Civan, F., Devegowda, D., and Sigal, R. 2013. Critical Evaluation and Improvement of Methods for Determination of Matrix Permeability of Shale. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166473-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/166473-MS.
Civan, F. and Evans, R. D. 1998. Determining the Parameters of the Forchheimer Equation From Pressure-Squared vs. Pseudopressure Formulations. SPE Res Eval & Eng 1 (1): 43–46. SPE-35621-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/35621-PA.
Civan, F., Rai, C. S., and Sondergeld, C. H. 2011. Shale-Gas Permeability and Diffusivity Inferred by Improved Formulation of Relevant Retention and Transport Mechanisms. Transport Porous Med. 86 (3): 925–944. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9665-x.
Civan, F., Rai, C. S., and Sondergeld, C. H. 2012. Determining Shale Permeability to Gas by Simultaneous Analysis of Various Pressure Tests. SPE J. 17 (3): 717–726. SPE-144253-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/144253-PA.
Cui, X., Bustin, A. M., and Bustin, R. 2009. Measurements of Gas Permeability and Diffusivity of Low-Permeability Reservoir Rocks: Different Approaches and Their Applications. Geofluids 9 (3): 208–223. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-8123.2009.00244.x.
Devegowda, D., Sapmanee, K, Civan, F. et al. 2012. Phase Behavior of Gas Condensates in Shales Due to Pore Proximity Effects: Implications for Transport, Reserves and Well Productivity. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 4–7 October. SPE-160099-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/160099-MS.
Dicker, A. I. and Smits, R. M. 1988. Practical Approach for Determining Permeability From Laboratory Pressure-Pulse Decay Measurements. Presented at the SPE International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Tianjin, China, 1–4 November. SPE-17578-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/17578-MS.
Dong, M., Li, Z., Li, S. et al. 2012. Permeabilities of Tight Reservoir Cores Determined for Gaseous and Liquid CO2 and C2H6 Using Minimum Backpressure Method. J. Nat. Gas. Sci. Eng. 5: 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2011.08.006.
Egermann, P., Lenormand, R., Longeron, D. et al. 2005. Fast and Direct Method of Permeability Measurements on Drill Cuttings. SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (4): 269–275. SPE-77563-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/77563-PA.
Ettehadtavakkol, A. and Jamali, A. 2016. Measurement of Shale Matrix Permeability and Adsorption With Canister Desorption Test. Transport Porous Med. 114 (1): 149–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-016-0731-x.
Fan, K., Sun, R., Elsworth, D. et al. 2018. Radial Permeability Measurement for Shale Using Variable Pressure Gradients. Presented at the SPE Trinidad and Tobago Section Energy Resources Conference, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 25–26 June. SPE-191198-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/191198-MS.
Fischer, G. J. and Paterson, M. S. 1992. Chapter 9 Measurement of Permeability and Storage Capacity in Rocks During Deformation at High Temperature and Pressure. Fault Mechanics Transport Properties Rocks 51: 213–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0074-6142(08)62824-7.
Ghabezloo, S., Sulem, J., Guedon, S. et al. 2009. Effective-Stress Law for the Permeability of a Limestone. Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci. 46: 297–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.05.006.
Hannon, M. J. 2016. Alternative Approaches for Transient-Flow Laboratory-Scale Permeametry. Transport Porous Med. 114 (3): 719. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-016-0741-8.
Heller, R., Vermylen, J., and Zoback, M. 2013. Experimental Investigation of Matrix Permeability of Gas Shales. AAPG Bull. 98 (5): 975–995. https://doi.org/10.1306/09231313023.
Jannot, Y. and Lasseux, D. 2012. New Quasi-Steady Method to Measure Gas Permeability of Weakly Permeable Porous Media. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83 (1): 15-113. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3677846.
Jones, S. C. 1997. Technique for Faster Pulse-Decay Permeability Measurements in Tight Rocks. SPE Form Eval 12 (1): 19–25. SPE-28450-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/28450-PA.
Krantz, W. B. 2007. Scaling Analysis in Modeling Transport and Reaction Processes: A Systematic Approach to Model Building and the Art of Approximation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Kranz, R. L., Saltzman J. S., and Blacic J. D. 1990. Hydraulic Diffusivity Measurements on Laboratory Rock Samples Using an Oscillating Pore Pressure Method. Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci. 27 (5): 345–352. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(90)92709-N.
Luffel, D. L. and Guidry, F. K. 1989. Core Analysis Results, Comprehensive Study Wells, Devonian Shales: Topical Report. GRI-89/0151, Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois (July 1989).
Luffel, D. L., Hopkins, C. W., and Schettler Jr., P. O. 1993. Matrix Permeability Measurement of Gas Productive Shales. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3–6 October. SPE-26633-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/26633-MS.
Metwally, Y. M. and Sondergeld, C. H. 2011. Measuring Low Permeabilities of Gas-Sands and Shales Using a Pressure Transmission Technique. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 48 (7): 1135–1144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2011.08.04.
Passey, Q. R., Bohacs, K., Esch, W. L. et al. 2010. From Oil-Prone Source Rock to Gas-Producing Shale Reservoir—Geologic and Petrophysical Characterization of Unconventional Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition. Beijing, China, 8–10 June. SPE-131350-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/131350-MS.
Profice, S., Lasseux, D., Jannot, Y. et al. 2012. Permeability, Porosity and Klinkenberg Coefficient Determination on Crushed Porous Media. Petrophysics 53 (6): 430–438. SPWLA-2012-v53n6a5.
Profice, S., Hamon, G., and Nicot, B. 2016. Low Permeability Measurements: Insights. Petrophysics 57 (1): 16–21. SPWLA-2016-v57n1a3.
Ramakrishnan, T. S. and Supp, M. G. 2016. Measurement of Ultralow Permeability. AIChE J 62 (4): 1278–1293. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.15094.
Rosen, R., Mickelson, W., Sharf-Aldin, M. et al. 2014. Impact of Experimental Studies on Unconventional Reservoir Mechanisms. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 1–3 April. SPE-168965-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168965-MS.
Sander, R., Pan, Z., and Connell, L. D. 2017. Laboratory Measurement of Low Permeability Unconventional Gas Reservoir Rocks: A Review of Experimental Methods. J. Nat. Gas. Sci. Eng. 37 (January): 248–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.11.041.
Sinha, S., Braun, E. M., Passey, Q. R. et al. 2012. Advances in Measurement Standards and Flow Properties Measurements for Tight Rocks Such as Shales. Presented at the SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 20–22 March. SPE-152257-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/152257-MS.
Sinha, S., Braun, E. M., Determan, M. D. et al. 2013. Steady-State Permeability Measurements on Intact Shale Samples at Reservoir Conditions—Effect of Stress, Temperature, Pressure, and Type of Gas. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 10–13 March. SPE-164263-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164263-MS.
Suarez-Rivera, R., Chertov, M., Willberg, D. et al. 2012. Understanding Permeability Measurements in Tight Shales Promotes Enhanced Determination of Reservoir Quality. Presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 30 October–1 November. SPE-162816-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/162816-MS.
Tinni, A, Fathi, E, Agarwal, R. et al. 2012. Shale Permeability Measurements on Plugs and Crushed Samples. Presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 30 October–1 November. SPE-162235-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/162235-MS.
Wilson, A. 2012. Advances in Measuring Permeability Address Shortcomings of Crushed-Rock Technique. J Pet Technol 64 (8): 57–61. SPE-0812-0057-JPT. https://doi.org/10.2118/0812-0057-JPT.