Sequential Fluid Characterization: A New Method Using High-Field-Core Nuclear Magnetic Resonance To Characterize Source-Rock Porosity and Fluids
- Matt L. Boyce (Epoch Consulting) | Kiran Gawankar (Southwestern Energy)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 428 - 440
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- NMR, movable porosity, unconventional resources, OOIP, OGIP
- 25 in the last 30 days
- 46 since 2007
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A Sand Wash Basin well was drilled for an unconventional target for which the measured core properties did not match production for the well. The crushed-rock porosity for the core suggested a bulk-volume hydrocarbon (BVH) of 1.5 to 2.0 p.u., indicating that the stimulation would have to be draining at approximately 400 ft vertically. To resolve this incongruity for further field development, we investigated the validity of crushed-rock porosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to accurately assess the resource. Initial results using conventional 2-MHz core NMR yielded results similar to those for crushed-rock porosity. Because unconventional rocks have very fast relaxations in NMR, it was then theorized that with the use of a high-resolution 20-MHz machine, the signal/noise ratio would improve and create a more-accurate quantification of porosity components. The results of using a high-resolution 20-MHz NMR showed a porosity increase from 6.5 p.u. using the Gas Research Institute (GRI) methodology (Luffel et al. 1992) to 14 p.u. on an as-received sample, creating a large increase for in-place calculations. As a result, a process termed sequential fluid characterization (SFC) was developed using high-resolution 20-MHz NMR to quantify all components of porosity (i.e., movable fluid, capillary-bound water, clay-bound water, heavy hydrocarbon, residual hydrocarbon, and free water). This method represents an alternative to crushed-rock methodologies (such as GRI and tight rock analysis) that will accurately quantify movable porosity as well as the other components without the errors introduced by cleaning and crushing. After investigating the application of SFC with the high-resolution 20-MHz NMR, it was identified that other unconventional plays (such as Marcellus and Fayetteville) have an average of 45% uplift on in-place calculations using SFC-based movable porosity. Identifying in-place volumes correctly can vastly improve the characterization of fields and prospects for unconventional-resource development, and, as is shown in this paper, SFC can be used to do so with a great effect on volume assessment in unconventional reservoirs.
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