Sequential Fluid Characterization: A New Method Using High-Field-Core Nuclear Magnetic Resonance To Characterize Source-Rock Porosity and Fluids
- Matt L. Boyce (Epoch Consulting) | Kiran Gawankar (Southwestern Energy)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 428 - 440
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- NMR, movable porosity, unconventional resources, OOIP, OGIP
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 81 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
A Sand Wash Basin well was drilled for an unconventional target for which the measured core properties did not match production for the well. The crushed-rock porosity for the core suggested a bulk-volume hydrocarbon (BVH) of 1.5 to 2.0 p.u., indicating that the stimulation would have to be draining at approximately 400 ft vertically. To resolve this incongruity for further field development, we investigated the validity of crushed-rock porosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to accurately assess the resource. Initial results using conventional 2-MHz core NMR yielded results similar to those for crushed-rock porosity. Because unconventional rocks have very fast relaxations in NMR, it was then theorized that with the use of a high-resolution 20-MHz machine, the signal/noise ratio would improve and create a more-accurate quantification of porosity components. The results of using a high-resolution 20-MHz NMR showed a porosity increase from 6.5 p.u. using the Gas Research Institute (GRI) methodology (Luffel et al. 1992) to 14 p.u. on an as-received sample, creating a large increase for in-place calculations. As a result, a process termed sequential fluid characterization (SFC) was developed using high-resolution 20-MHz NMR to quantify all components of porosity (i.e., movable fluid, capillary-bound water, clay-bound water, heavy hydrocarbon, residual hydrocarbon, and free water). This method represents an alternative to crushed-rock methodologies (such as GRI and tight rock analysis) that will accurately quantify movable porosity as well as the other components without the errors introduced by cleaning and crushing. After investigating the application of SFC with the high-resolution 20-MHz NMR, it was identified that other unconventional plays (such as Marcellus and Fayetteville) have an average of 45% uplift on in-place calculations using SFC-based movable porosity. Identifying in-place volumes correctly can vastly improve the characterization of fields and prospects for unconventional-resource development, and, as is shown in this paper, SFC can be used to do so with a great effect on volume assessment in unconventional reservoirs.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Ali, M. R., Anand, V., Abubakar, A. et al. 2016. Characterizing Light versus Bound Hydrocarbon in a Shale Reservoir by Integrating New Two-Dimensional NMR and Advanced Spectroscopy Measurements. Presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 1–3 August. URTEC-2457043-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2016-2457043.
Blount, A., Croft, T., Driskill, B. et al. 2017. Lessons Learned in Permian Core Analysis: Comparison Between Retort, GRI, and Routine Methodologies. Petrophysics 58 (5): 517–527. SPWLA-2017-v58n5a5.
Boyce, M. L. 2010. Sub-Surface Stratigraphy and Petrophysical Analysis of the Middle Devonian Interval of the Central Appalachian Basin: West Virginia and Southwest Pennsylvania. PhD dissertation, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
Coates, G. R., Xiao, L., and Prammer, M. G. 1999. NMR Logging: Principles & Applications. Houston: Halliburton Energy Services.
Cowan, B. 1997. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Dellenbach, B. A. 2016. An Outcrop to Subsurface Stratigraphic Analysis of the Niobrara Formation, Sand Wash Basin, Colorado. Oral presentation given at the AAPG Pacific Section and Rocky Mountain Section Joint Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2–5 October.
Driskill, B., Walls, J., Sinclair, S. W. et al. 2013. Micro-Scale Characterization of the Eagle Ford Formation Using SEM Methods and Digital Rock Modeling. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 12–14 August. URTEC-1582375-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-1582375-MS.
Finn, T. M. and Johnson, R. C. 2005. Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Southwestern Wyoming Province, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. In Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Southwestern Wyoming Province, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah, Chap. 6, 1–27. Denver: US Geological Survey.
Gupta, I., Rai, C., Tinni, A. et al. 2017. Impact of Different Cleaning Methods on Petrophysical Measurements. Petrophysics 58 (6): 613–621. SPWLA-2017-v58n6a5.
Handwerger, D. A., Keller, J., and Vaughn, K. 2011. Improved Petrophysical Core Measurements on Tight Shale Reservoirs Using Retort and Crushed Samples. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-147456-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/147456-MS.
Jiang, T., Rylander, E., Singer, P. et al. 2013. Integrated Petrophysical Interpretation of Eagle Ford Shale With 1-D and 2-D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Presented at the SPWLA 54th Annual Logging Symposium, New Orleans, 22–26 June. SPWLA-2013-LL.
Kausik, R., Fellah, K., Rylander, E. et al. 2016. NMR Relaxometry in Shale and Implications for Logging. Petrophysics 57 (4): 339–350. SPWLA-2016-v57n4a1.
Lewan, M. D. and Sonnenfeld, M. 2017. Determining Quantity and Quality of Retained Oil in Mature Marly Chalk and Marlstone of the Cretaceous Niobrara Formation by Low-Temperature Hydrous Pyrolysis. Presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Austin, Texas, 24–26 July. URTEC-2670700-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2017-2670700.
Luffel, D. L., Guidry, F. K., and Curtis, J. B. 1992. Evaluation of Devonian Shale With New Core and Log Analysis Methods. J Pet Technol 44 (11): 1192–1197. SPE-21297-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/21297-PA.
Ozen, A. E. and Sigal, R. F. 2013. T1/T2 NMR Surface Relaxation Ratio for Hydrocarbons and Brines in Contact With Mature Organic-Shale Reservoir Rocks. Petrophysics 54 (1): 11–19. SPWLA-2013-v54n1-A1.
Passey, Q. R., Bohacs, K. M., Esch, W. L. et al. 2012. My Source Rock is Now My Reservoir–Geologic and Petrophysical Characterization of Shale-Gas Reservoirs. Oral presentation given at the Society for Organic Petrology’s 28th Annual Meeting, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 31 July–4 August.
Rao, J. D., Al-Ashwak, S., Al-Anzi, A. M. et al. 2015. Integrated Reservoir Characterization of Deep Kerogen-Rich Unconventional Resource Play in North Kuwait. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 20–22 July. URTEC-2152297-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2015-2152297.
Sisk, C., Diaz, E., Walls, J. et al. 2010. 3D Visualization and Classification of Pore Structure and Pore Filling in Gas Shales. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–20 September. SPE-134582-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/134582-MS.
Spears, R. W., Dudus, D., Foulds, A. et al. 2011. Shale Gas Core Analysis: Strategies For Normalizing Between Laboratories and a Clear Need For Standard Materials. Presented at the SPWLA 52nd Annual Logging Symposium, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 14–18 May. SPWLA-2011-A.
Steiner, S., Ahshan, S. A., Noufal, A. et al. 2015. Integrated Approach to Evaluate Unconventional and Tight Reservoirs in Abu Dhabi. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 9–12 November. SPE-177610-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/177610-MS.
Stout, L. 2012. Carbon Isotope Chemostratigraphy of the Niobrara Formation, Denver Basin. Master’s thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Sun, B., Wang, H., Gidcumb, S. et al. 2016. NMR Isotherm Studies of Gas Shales. Presented at the SPWLA 57th Annual Logging Symposium, Reykjavik, Iceland, 25–29 September. SPWLA-2016-DD.
Veselinovic, D., Green, D., and Dick, M. 2016. Determination of Natural Fracture Porosity Using NMR. Presented at the SPE/AAG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 1–3 August. URTEC-2447768-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2016-2447768.
Vo, T. 2015. High Frequency NMR in Unconventional Core Analysis. Presented at the SPWLA Annual Unconventional Resources SIG Conference, Spring, Texas, 24 August.
Wilson, A. 2012. Advances in Measuring Permeability Address Shortcomings of Crushed-Rock Technique. J Pet Technol 64 (8): 57–61. SPE-0812-0057-JPT. https://doi.org/10.2118/0812-0057-JPT.