Revisiting the Butler-Mokrys Model for the Vapor-Extraction Process
- Vijitha Mohan (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Parthasakha Neogi (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Baojun Bai (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 511 - 521
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- VAPEX, gravity drainage, heavy oil
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 101 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The dynamics of a process in which a solvent in the form of a vapor or gas is introduced in a heavy-oil reservoir is considered. The process is called the solvent vapor-extraction process (VAPEX). When the vapor dissolves in the oil, it reduces its viscosity, allowing oil to flow under gravity and be collected at the bottom producer well. The conservation-of-species equation is analyzed to obtain a more-appropriate equation that differentiates between the velocity within the oil and the velocity at the interface, which can be solved to obtain a concentration profile of the solvent in oil. We diverge from an earlier model in which the concentration profile is assumed. However, the final result provides the rate at which oil is collected, which agrees with the previous model in that it is proportional to the square root of h, where h is the pay-zone height; in contrast, some of the later data show a dependence on h. Improved velocity profiles can capture this dependence. A dramatic increase in output is seen if the oil viscosity decreases in the presence of the solvent, although the penetration of the solvent into the oil is reduced because under such conditions the diffusivity decreases with decreased solvent. One other important feature we observe is that when the viscosity-reducing effect is very large, the recovered fluid is mainly solvent. Apparently, some optimum might exist in the solubility, where the ratio of oil recovered to solvent lost is the largest. Finally, the present approach also allows us to show how the oil/vapor interface evolves with time.
|File Size||339 KB||Number of Pages||11|
Aghbash, V. N. and Ahmadi, M. 2012. Evaluation of CO2-EOR and Sequestration in Alaska West Sak Reservoir Using Four-Phase Simulation Model. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California. SPE-153920-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/153920-MS.
Bachu, S. and Shaw, J. 2003. Evaluation of the CO2 Sequestration Capacity in Alberta’s Oil and Gas Reservoirs at Depletion and the Effect of Underlying Aquifers. J Can Pet Technol 42 (9): 51–61. PETSOC-03-09-02. https://doi.org/10.2118/03-09-02.
Banerjee, D. K. 2012. Oil Sands, Heavy Oil & Bitumen. Tulsa: PennWell.
Batchelor, G. K. 1967. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E., and Lightfoot, E. N. 2002. Transport Phenomena. New York City: John Wiley & Sons.
Brinkman, H. C. 1947. On the Permeability of Media Consisting of Closely Packed Porous Particles. Appl. Sci. Res. A1: 81–86.
Burke, N. E., Hobbs, R. E., and Kshou, S. F. 1990. Measurement and Modeling of Asphaltene Precipitation. J Pet Technol 42 (11): 1440–1520. SPE-18273-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/18273-PA.
Butler, R. M. and Mokrys, I. J. 1989. Solvent Analog Model of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. AOSTRA J. Res 5 (1): 17–32.
Butler, R. M. and Mokrys, I. J. 1991. A New Process (VAPEX) for Recovering Heavy Oils Using Hot Water and Hydrocarbon Vapour. J Can Pet Technol 30 (1): 97–106. PETSOC-91-01-09. https://doi.org/10.2118/91-01-09.
Chung, F. T. H., Jones, R. A., and Nguyen, H. T. 1988. Measurements and Correlations of the Physical Properties of CO2-Heavy Crude Oil Mixtures. SPE Res Eng 3 (3): 822–828. SPE-15080-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15080-PA.
Cohen, M. H. and Turnbull, D. 1959. Molecular Transport in Liquids and Glasses. J. Chem. Phys. 31 (5): 1164–1169. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1730566.
Cuthiell, D. and Edmunds, N. 2012. Thoughts on Simulating the Vapex Process. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, 12–14 June. SPE-158499-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/158499-MS.
Fujita, H. 1961. Diffusion in Polymer-Solvent Systems. In Fortschritte Der Hochpolymeren-Forschung, Advances in Polymer Science series, Vol. 3, 1–47. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Haghighat, P. and Maini, B. B. 2012a. Role of Asphaltene Precipitation in Vapex Process. J Can Pet Technol 49 (3): 14–21. SPE-134244-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/134244-PA.
Haghighat, P. and Maini, B. B. 2012b. Experimental Evaluation of Heated Vapex Process. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, 12–14 June. SPE-157799-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/157799-MS.
Higgins, B. G., Silliman, W. J., Brown, K. A. et al. 1977. Theory of Meniscus Shape in Film Flows. A Synthesis. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamen. 16 (4): 393–401. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160064a001.
Jia, Y., Huang, L., and Sun, L. 2017. The Mechanism and Simulation Research of “Foamy Oil” During CO2 Flooding. Presented at the Carbon Management Technology Conference, Houston, 17–20 July. CMTC-485491-MS. https://doi.org/10.7122/485491-MS.
Karmakar, K. and Maini, B. B. 2003. Experimental Investigation of Oil Drainage Rates in the Vapex Process for Heavy Oil and Bitumen Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 5–8 October. SPE-84199-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/84199-MS.
Kok, M. V. and Ors, O. 2012. The Evaluation of an Immiscible-CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Technique for Heavy Crude Oil Reservoirs. Energ. Sour. A 34 (8): 673–681. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2011.601796.
Lake, L. W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Mohan, V., Neogi, P., and Bai, B. 2017a. Flory-Huggins Solution for Heavy Oils. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 95 (4): 796–798. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.22707.
Mohan, V., Neogi, P., and Bai, B. 2017b. Concentration Dependent Diffusivities of Model Solvents in Heavy Oil. Diffusion Fundamen. 27 (3): 1–27.
Naderi, K. and Babadagli, T. 2012. Experimental Analysis of Heavy Oil Recovery and CO2 Storage by Alternate Injection of Steam and CO2 in Deep Naturally Fractured Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, 12–14 June. SPE-146738-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/146738-MS.
Nenninger, J. E. and Dunn, S. G. 2008. How Fast is Solvent Based Gravity Drainage? Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 17–19 June. PETSOC-2008-139. https://doi.org/10.2118/2008-139.
Nghiem, L. X. and Coombe, D. A. 1997. Modeling Asphaltene Precipitation During Primary Depletion. SPE J. 2 (2): 170–176. SPE-36106-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/36106-PA.
Prausnitz, J. M., Lichtenthaler, R. N., and de Azevedo, E. C. 1999. Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibrium, third edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Schlichting, H. 1968. Boundary-Layer Theory, sixth edition. New York City: McGraw-Hill.
Shaw, J. and Bachu, S. 2002. Screening, Evaluation, and Ranking of Oil Reservoirs Suitable for CO2-Flood EOR and Carbon Dioxide Sequestration. J Can Pet Technol 41 (9): 51–61. PETSOC-02-09-05. https://doi.org/10.2118/02-09-05.
Temizel, C., Balaji, K., Suhag, A. et al. 2017. Optimization of Foamy Oil Production in Horizontal Wells. Presented at the SPE Latin America and Caribbean Mature Fields Symposium, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 15–16 March. SPE-184904-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/184904-MS.
Tran, T. Q. M. D., Neogi, P., and Bai, B. 2012. Free Volume Estimates of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties. Chem. Eng. Sci. 80 (1 October): 100–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2012.06.012.
Vrentas, J. S. and Duda, J. L. 1979. Molecular Diffusion in Polymer Solutions. AIChE J. 25 (1): 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690250102.
Wang, Q., Jia, X., and Chen, Z. 2017 Modelling of Dynamic Mass Transfer in a Vapour Extraction Heavy Oil Recovery Process. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 95 (6): 1171–1180. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.22743.
Yazdani, A. and Maini, B. B. 2005. Effect of Height and Grain Size on the Production Rates in the Vapex Process: Experimental Study. SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (3): 205–212. SPE-89409-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/89409-PA.