A New Approach to the Analytical Treatment of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: A Prescribed Interface Model
- Mohsen Keshavarz (University of Calgary) | Thomas G. Harding (Nexen Energy) | Zhangxing Chen (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 492 - 510
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- PIN and LINAR Models, Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), Analytical and Mathematical Modeling, Thermal Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen, Unsteady State Heat Transfer
- 26 in the last 30 days
- 72 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The majority of the models in the literature for the steam-assisted-gravity-drainage (SAGD) process solve the problem of conductive heat transfer ahead of a moving hot interface using a quasisteady-state assumption and extend the solution to the base of the steam chamber where the interface is not moving. This approach, as discussed by Butler (1985) and Reis (1992), results in inaccurate or sometimes infeasible estimations of the oil-production rate, steam/oil ratio (SOR), and steam-chamber shape. In this work, a new approach for the analytical treatment of SAGD is proposed in which the problem of heat transfer is directly solved for a stationary source of heat at the base of the steam chamber, where the oil production occurs. The distribution of heat along the interface is then estimated depending on the geometry of the steam chamber.
This methodology is more representative of the heat-transfer characteristics of SAGD and resolves the challenges of those earlier models. In addition, it allows for the extension of the formulations to the early stages of the process when the side interfaces of the chamber are almost stationary, without loss of the solution continuity. The model requires the overall shape of the steam chamber as an input. It then estimates the movement of chamber interfaces using the movement of the uppermost interface point and by satisfying the global material-balance requirements. Oil-production rate and steam demand are estimated by Darcy’s law and energy-balance calculations, respectively. The result is a model that is applicable to the entire lifetime of a typical SAGD project and provides more-representative estimations of in-situ heat distribution, bitumen-production rate, and SOR.
With the improved knowledge obtained on the fundamentals of heat transfer in SAGD, the reason for the discrepancies between the various earlier models will be clarified. Results of the analytical models developed in this work show reasonable agreement with fine-scale numerical simulation, which indicates that the primary physics are properly captured. In the final section of the paper, the application of the developed models to two field case studies will be demonstrated.
|File Size||874 KB||Number of Pages||19|
Alberta Energy Regulator (AER). 2013a. Cenovus Christina Lake In-Situ Oil Sands Scheme (8591) 2012–2013 Update, https://www.aer.ca/documents/oilsands/insitu-presentations/2013AthabascaCenovusChristinaSAGD8591.pdf (accessed June 2018).
Alberta Energy Regulator (AER). 2013b. Devon Canada Corporation Jackfish SAGD Project 2013 Subsurface Performance Presentation, http://www.aer.ca/documents/oilsands/insitu-presentations/2013AthabascaDevonJackfishSAGD10097.pdf (accessed February 2018).
Alberta Energy Regulator (AER). 2014a. Cenovus Christina Lake In-Situ Oil Sands Scheme (8591) 2013 Update, https://www.aer.ca/documents/oilsands/insitu-presentations/2014AthabascaCenovusChristinaSAGD8591.pdf (accessed June 2018).
Alberta Energy Regulator (AER). 2014b. Devon Canada Corporation Jackfish SAGD Project 2014 Performance Presentation, http://www.aer.ca/documents/oilsands/insitu-presentations/2014AthabascaDevonJackfishSAGD10097.pdf (accessed February 2018).
Alberta Energy Regulator (AER). 2015. Devon Canada Corporation Jackfish SAGD Project 2015 Performance Presentation, http://www.aer.ca/documents/oilsands/insitu-presentations/2015AthabascaDevonJackfishSAGD10097.pdf (accessed February 2018).
Alberta Energy Regulator (AER). 2016. Devon Canada Corporation Jackfish SAGD Project 2016 Performance Presentation, http://www.aer.ca/documents/oilsands/insitu-presentations/2016AthabascaDevonJackfishSAGD10097.pdf (accessed February 2018).
Alberta Energy Regulator (AER). 2017a. Cenovus FCCL Ltd. Christina Lake In-Situ Progress Report Scheme 8591, 2016 Update, https://www.aer.ca/documents/oilsands/insitu-presentations/2017AthabascaCenovusChristinaSAGD8591-Presentation.zip (accessed June 2018).
Alberta Energy Regulator (AER). 2017b. Devon Canada Corporation Jackfish SAGD Project 2017 Performance Presentation, http://www.aer.ca/documents/oilsands/insitu-presentations/2017AthabascaDevonJackfishSAGD10097.pdf (accessed February 2018).
Anand, J., Somerton, W. H., and Gomaa, E. 1973. Predicting Thermal Conductivities of Formations From Other Known Properties. SPE J. 13 (5): 267–273. SPE-4171-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4171-PA.
Bland, W. F. and Davidson, R. L. 1967. Petroleum Processing Handbook. New York City: McGraw Hill.
Butler, R. M. 1985. A New Approach to the Modelling of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J Can Pet Technol 24 (3): 42–51. PETSOC-85-03-01. https://doi.org/10.2118/85-03-01.
Butler, R. M. 1991. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Butler, R. M. 1994. Horizontal Wells for the Recovery of Oil, Gas and Bitumen. Calgary: Petroleum Society, Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy & Petroleum.
Butler, R. M. and Stephens, J. D. 1981. The Gravity Drainage of Steam-Heated Heavy Oil to Parallel Horizontal Wells. J Can Pet Technol 20 (2): 90–96. PETSOC-81-02-07. https://doi.org/10.2118/81-02-07.
Butler, R. M., McNab, G. S., and Lo, H. Y. 1981. Theoretical Studies on the Gravity Drainage of Heavy Oil During In-Situ Steam Heating. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 59 (August 1981): 455–460.
Carslaw, H. S. and Jaeger, J. C. 1959. Conduction of Heat in Solids. London: Oxford University Press.
Computer Modelling Group (CMG). 2015. STARS User Manual, Version 2015. Calgary: CMG.
Edmunds, N. R. and Peterson, J. 2007. A Unified Model for Prediction of CSOR in Steam-Based Bitumen Recovery. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 12–14 June. PETSOC-2007-027. https://doi.org/10.2118/2007-027.
Gupta, S. C. and Gittins, S. D. 2012. An Investigation Into Optimal Solvent Use and the Nature of Vapor/Liquid Interface in Solvent-Aided SAGD Process With a Semi-Analytical Approach. SPE J. 17 (4): 1255–1264. SPE-146671-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/146671-PA.
Irani, M. and Cokar, M. 2015. Discussion on the Effects of Temperature on Thermal Properties in the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Process. Part 1: Thermal Conductivity. SPE J. 21 (2): 1–19. SPE-178426-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/178426-PA.
Kariznovi, M., Nourozieh, H., and Abedi J. 2014. Measurement and Correlation of Viscosity and Density for Compressed Athabasca Bitumen at Temperatures Up to 200°C. J Can Pet Technol 53 (6): 330–338. SPE-173182-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173182-PA.
Keshavarz, M., Harding, T. G., and Chen, Z. 2016. Modification of Butler’s Unsteady-State SAGD Theory To Include the Vertical Growth of Steam Chamber. Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 7–9 June. SPE-180733-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180733-MS.
Miura, K. and Wang, J. 2012. An Analytical Model To Predict Cumulative Steam/Oil Ratio (CSOR) in Thermal-Recovery SAGD Process. J Can Pet Technol 51 (4): 268–275. SPE-137604-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/137604-PA.
Rabiei Faradonbeh, M. R., Harding, T. G., and Abedi, J. 2016a. Semi-Analytical Modeling of Steam-Solvent Gravity Drainage of Heavy Oil and Bitumen, Part 1: Steady State Model With Linear Interface. Fuel 183 (1 November): 568–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/2Fj.fuel.2016.06.096.
Rabiei Faradonbeh, M. R., Harding, T. G., and Abedi, J. 2016b. Semi-Analytical Modeling of Steam/Solvent Gravity Drainage of Heavy Oil and Bitumen, Unsteady-State Model With Curved Interface. SPE Res Eval & Eng 20 (1): 134–148. SPE-170123-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170123-PA.
Reis, J. C. 1992. A Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Model for Tar Sands: Linear Geometry. J Can Pet Technol 31 (10): 14–20. PETSOC-92-10-01. https://doi.org/10.2118/92-10-01.
Sharma, J. and Gates, I. D. 2010. Multiphase Flow at the Edge of a Steam Chamber. Can. J. Chem Eng. 88 (June): 312–321. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.20280.
Shi, X. and Okuno, R. 2018. Analytical Solution for Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage With Consideration of Temperature Variation Along the Edge of a Steam Chamber. Fuel 217 (April): 262–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.12.110.
Smith-Magowan, D., Skauge, A., and Helper, L. G. 1982. Specific Heats of Athabasca Oil Sands and Components. J Can Pet Technol 21 (3): 28–32. PETSOC-82-03-02. https://doi.org/10.2118/82-03-02.
Somerton, W. H., Keese, J. A., and Chu, S. L. 1974. Thermal Behavior of Unconsolidated Oil Sands. SPE J. 14 (5): 513–521. SPE-4506-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4506-PA.
Tortike, W. S. and Farouq Ali, S. M. 1989. Saturated-Steam-Property Functional Correlations for Fully Implicit Thermal Reservoir Simulation. SPE Res Eng 4 (4): 471–474. SPE-17094-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/17094-PA.
Tsay, W. J., Huang, C. J., Fu, T. T. et al. 2013. A Simple Closed-Form Approximation for the Cumulative Distribution Function of the Composite Error of Stochastic Frontier Models. J. Product. Anal. 39 (3): 259–269. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11123-012-0283-1.
Zargar, Z. and Farouq Ali, S. M. 2018. Analytical Treatment of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: Old and New. SPE J. 23 (1): 117–127. SPE-180748-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/180748-PA.