Carbonic Acid Resistance of Hydroxyapatite-Containing Cement
- Aman Srivastava (University of Oklahoma) | Ramadan Ahmed (University of Oklahoma) | Subhash Shah (University of Oklahoma)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- March 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 88 - 99
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Cement additives, Carbonation, Hydroxyapatite, Carbonic acid, Well cement
- 24 in the last 30 days
- 146 since 2007
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With the current applications of carbon dioxide (CO2) in oil wells for enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) and sequestration purposes, the dissolution of CO2 in the formation brine, and the resulting formation of carbonic acid (H2CO3), is a major cause of cement damage. This degradation can lead to noncompliance with the functions of the cement because it changes compressive strength and shear-bond strength (SBS) and the porosity and permeability of cement. It becomes imperative to understand the degradation mechanism of cement and methods to reduce the damage, such as the use of special additives to improve the resistance of cement to an acid attack. Hence, the primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of hydroxyapatite on cement degradation.
To investigate the effects of hydroxyapatite additive on oil-well-cement performance, two Class H cement slurry formulations [the baseline Class H cement containing silica flour (HS) and the hydroxyapatite-containing cement (HHO), a Class H cement containing 5% hydroxyapatite by weight of cement (BWOC)] were compared after exposure to acidic environments. To evaluate the performance of the formulations, samples were prepared and aged in a high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) autoclave containing 2% brine saturated with mixed gas containing methane (CH4) and CO2. Tests were performed at different temperatures (38 to 221°C), pressures (21 to 63 MPa), and CO2 concentrations (10 to 100%). After aging for 14 days at constant pressure and temperature, the samples were recovered and their bond strength and compressive strength and their porosity and permeability (i.e., overall apparent permeability) were measured and compared with those of unaged samples.
The results demonstrated that adding hydroxyapatite limits carbonation. Baseline samples that did not contain hydroxyapatite carbonated, and consequently their compressive strength, porosity, permeability, and SBS significantly changed after aging, whereas hydroxyapatite-containing samples displayed a limited change in their properties. However, hydroxyapatite-containing samples exhibit high permeability because of the formation of microcracks after exposure to H2CO3 at high temperature (221°C). The formation of microcracks could be attributed to thermal retrogression or other phenomena that cause the expansion of the cement.
This paper sheds light on the application of hydroxyapatite as a cement additive to improve the H2CO3 resistance of oilwell cement. It presents a hydroxyapatite-containing cement formulation that has acceptable slurry properties for field applications and better H2CO3 resistance compared with conventional cement.
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