The Importance of Clean Off-Plane Perforations in all Phases of a Deepwater Well and its Productivity Impact
- Karthik A. V. Mahadev (BP) | Prashant Haldipur (BP) | Steven J. Tinker (BP) | Carlos Stewart (BP) | Alistair M. Roy (BP)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- June 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- skin, productivity, strategic, frac-packs, fracturing and stimulation, completion effectiveness,, sand control, deepwater
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 18 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
High-permeability reservoirs in deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) have been completed with frac packs, resulting in high-production-rate wells. The initial production rates for these wells range from 3,000 B/D to almost 40,000 B/D; and these rates can be sustained over extended periods of time (several years). Most of these developments in the GOM require sand control with cased hole frac packs (CHFPs) as the preferred completion technique. In addition to providing reliable sand control, frac packs result in relatively low skin by bypassing near-wellbore damage. During the past few years, operators have focused on reducing skin and improving the production from these wells, leading to a more detailed analysis of frac-pack performance. This paper will demonstrate that in high-permeability reservoirs, production from the off-plane perforations is as important as production from the fracture. It examines the theoretical basis of the contribution of off-plane perforations to total flow and demonstrates the adverse effect on this contribution because of damage from drilling fluids and solids, cementing spacers and solids, fluid-loss materials, perforating debris, wellbore debris, and crosslinked gel. Three case histories are analyzed to evaluate and quantify these effects and to show that the lower the conductivity contrast between the (high permeability) reservoir and the fracture, the higher the production benefit that can be realized by effectively cleaning the off-plane perforations.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||10|
Allen, D., Auzerais, F., Dussan, E. et al. 1991. Invasion Revisited. Oilfield Review 10–23. https://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/resources/oilfield_review/ors91/jul91/3_invasion.pdf.
Chang, F. F., Kageson-Loe, N. M., Walton, I. C. et al. 2004. Perforating in Overbalance—Is It Really Sinful? SPE Drill & Compl 19 (3): 173–179. https://doi.org/10.2118/82203-PA.
Cinco-Ley, L. H., Samaniego, V.F., and Dominguez, A. N. 1978. Transient Pressure Behavior for a Well With Finite-Conductivity Vertical Fracture. SPE J. 18 (4): 1–12. SPE-6014-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/6014-PA.
Ferguson, C. K. and Klotz, J. A. 1954. Filtration From Mud During Drilling. J Pet Technol 6 (2): 1–14. SPE-289-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/289-G.
Jones, R. R., Carpenter, R. B., and Conway, M. W. 1991. A Study of Formation Damage Potential During Cementing Operations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, TX, 6–9 October. SPE-22777-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/22777-MS.
NSI Technologies. 2011. NSI Technologies Frac Tips. Data Needs for Optimal Frac Design. Tulsa: NSI.
Prats, M. 1961. Effect of Vertical Fractures on Reservoir Behavior—Incompressible Fluid Case. SPE J. 1 (2): 1–14. SPE-1575-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/1575-G.
Prats, M., Hazebroek, P., and Strickler, W. R. 1962. Effect of Vertical Fractures on Reservoir Behavior—Compressible-Fluid Case. SPE J. 9 (2): 87–94. SPE-98-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/98-PA.
Van Overveldt, A. S., Guo, H., de Blok, G. et al. 2012. A CT Scan Aided Core Flood Study of Leakoff Processes in Oil Based Drilling Fluids. Presented at the SPE International Exhibition and Formation Damage Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 15–17 February. SPE-151856-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/151856-MS.
Vidick, B. and Reid, P. 1997. Could Formation Damage Minimization Provide a Cost-Effective Integrated Approach for the Design of Drilling and Cementing Fluids. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 14–16 April. SPE-38040-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/38040-MS.
Zhang, J. and Standifird, W. B. 2007. Impermeable Drilling Mud to Strengthen Wellbore Stability. Presented at the 1st Canada – U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, Vancouver, Canada, 27–31 May. ARMA-07-210.