The Effect of Voidage-Displacement Ratio on Critical Gas Saturation
- Tae Wook Kim (Stanford University) | Anthony R. Kovscek (Stanford University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 178 - 199
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- voidage replacement, critical gas saturation, viscous oil, experimental studies, depletion
- 21 in the last 30 days
- 113 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The critical gas saturation in permeable sands was studied as a function of depletion rate and the presence of an aqueous phase as the major experimental variables. Voidage-replacement ratios (VRR = injected volume/produced volume) less than 1 were used to obtain pressure depletion with active water injection. Three different live crude oils were considered. Two of the oils are viscous Alaskan crudes with dead-oil viscosities of 87.7 and 600 cp, whereas the third is a light crude oil with a dead-oil viscosity of 9.1 cp. The critical gas saturation for all tests ranged from 4 to 16%. These values for critical gas saturation are consistent with the finding that the gas phase displayed characteristics similar to those of a foamy oil. For a given oil and depletion rate, the critical gas saturation was somewhat larger for VRR = 0 than it was for VRR = 0.7. The oil recovery correlates with the critical gas saturation (i.e., for a given VRR, tests exhibit greater oil recovery when the critical gas saturation is elevated). For the conditions tested, there was not a strong correlation of critical gas saturation over more than two orders of magnitude of the rate of pressure depletion, for a given VRR. Such behavior might be consistent with theoretical studies reported elsewhere that suggest that the critical gas saturation is independent of the pressure-depletion rate when the rate of depletion is small.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||22|
Ahmed, T. 2006. Reservoir Engineering Handbook. Houston: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Akin, S. and Kovscek, A. R. 2003. Computed Tomography in Petroleum Engineering Research. In Application of X-ray Computed Tomography in the Geosciences, first edition, ed. F. Mees, R. Swennen, M. Van Geet, et al. Vol. 215, 23–38. London: Geological Society.
Bondino, I., McDougall, S. R., and Hamon, G. 2005. Pore Network Modelling of Heavy Oil Depressurisation: A Parametric Study of Factors Affecting Critical Gas Saturation and 3-PhaseRelative Permeabilities. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and International Horizontal Well Technology Conference, Calgary, 4–7 November. SPE-78976-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/78976-MS.
Bondino, I., McDougall, S. R., and Hamon, G. 2009. A Pore-Scale Modelling Approach to the Interpretation of Heavy Oil Pressure Depletion Experiments. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 65 (1–2): 14–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2008.12.010.
Computer Modelling Group (CMG). 2016. STARS Version 2016 User Guide. Calgary: CMG.
Du, C. and Yortsos, Y. C. 1999. A Numerical Study of the Critical Gas Saturation in a Porous Medium. Transport Porous Med. 35 (2): 205–225. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006582222356.
Dyes, A. B. 1954. Production of Water-Driven Reservoirs Below Their Bubblepoint. J Pet Technol 6 (10): 31–35. SPE-417-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/417-G.
Firoozabadi, A. and Kashchiev, D. 1996. Pressure and Volume Evolution During Gas Phase Formation in Solution Gas Drive Process (includes associated papers 38340 and 38565). SPE J. 1 (3): 219–228. SPE-26286-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/26286-PA.
Firoozabadi, A., Ottesen, B., and Mikklesen, M. 1992. Measurements of Supersaturation and Critical Gas Saturation (includes associated papers 27920 and 28669). SPE Form Eval 7 (4): 337–344. SPE-19694-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/19694-PA.
Grattoni, C. A. and Dawe, R. A. 2003. Gas and Oil Production From Waterflood Residual Oil: Effects of Wettability and Oil Spreading Characteristics. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 39 (3–4): 297–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(03)00070-6.
Kamath, J. and Boyer, R. E. 1995. Critical Gas Saturation and Supersaturation in Low-Permeability Rocks. SPE Form Eval 10 (4): 247–254. SPE- 26663-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/26663-PA.
Kim, T. W., Vittoratos, E., and Kovscek, A. R. 2016. An Experimental Investigation of Viscous-Oil Recovery Efficiency as a Function of Voidage-Replacement Ratio. SPE J. 21 (4): 1236–1253. SPE-174032-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/174032-PA.
Kortekaas, T. F. M. and van Poelgeest, F. 1991. Liberation of Solution Gas During Pressure Depletion of Virgin and Watered-Out Oil Reservoirs. SPE Res Eng 6 (3): 329–335. SPE-19693-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/19693-PA.
Li, X. and Yortsos, Y. C. 1991. Visualization and Numerical Studies of Bubble Growth During Pressure Depletion. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 6–9 October. SPE-22589-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/22589-MS.
Li, X. and Yortsos, Y. C. 1993. Critical Gas Saturation: Modeling and Sensitivity Studies. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3–6 October. SPE-26662-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/26662-MS.
Matlab Version 2017a. 2017. Natick, Massachusetts: The MathWorks, Inc.
McDougall, S. R. and Mackay, E. J. 1998. The Impact of Pressure-Dependent Interfacial Tension and Buoyancy Forces Upon Pressure Depletion in Virgin Hydrocarbon Reservoirs. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 76 (5): 553–561. https://doi.org/10.1205/026387698525234.
Moulu, J. C. 1989. Solution-Gas Drive: Experiments and Simulation. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2 (4): 379–386. https://doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(89)90011-9.
Petersen, E. B., Agaev, G. S., Palatnik, B. et al. 2004. Determination of Critical Gas Saturation and Relative Permeabilities Relevant to the Depressurization of the Statfjord Field. Presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Abu Dhabi, 5–9 October. SCA2004-33.
Peng, J., Tang, G. -Q., and Kovscek, A. R. 2009. Oil Chemistry and Its Impact on Heavy Oil Solution Gas Drive. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 66 (1–2): 47–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2009.01.005.
Riaz, A. and Tchelepi, H. A. 2004. Linear Stability Analysis of Immiscible Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media With Capillary Dispersion and Density Variation. Phys. Fluid. 16 (12): 4727–4737. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1812511.
Sahni, A., Gadelle, F., Kumar, M. et al. 2001. Experiments and Analysis of Heavy Oil Solution Gas Drive. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–3 October. SPE-71498-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/71498-MS.
Spiecker, P. M., Gawrys, K. L., Trail, C. B. et al. 2003. Effects of Petroleum Resins on Asphaltene Aggregation and Water-in-Oil Emulsion Formation. Colloid. Surface. A 220 (1–3): 9–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(03)00079-7.
Tang, G. Q. and Firoozabadi, A. 2005. Effect of GOR, Temperature, and Initial Water Saturation on Solution-Gas Drive in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs. SPE J. 10 (1): 34–43. SPE-71499-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/71499-PA.
Tang, G. -Q., Sahni, A., Gadelle, F. et al. 2006a. Heavy-Oil Solution Gas Drive in Consolidated and Unconsolidated Rock. SPE J. 11 (2): 259–268. SPE-87226-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/87226-PA.
Tang, G. -Q., Leung, Y. T., Castanier, L. M. et al. 2006b. An Investigation of the Effect of Oil Composition on Heavy Oil Solution-Gas Drive. SPE J. 11 (1): 58–70. SPE-84197-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/84197-PA.
Tecplot 360 EX 2017 R2. 2017. Version 2017 Release 2, Bellevue, Washington: Tecplot.
Tsimpanogiannis, I. N. and Yortsos, Y. C. 2002. Model for the Gas Evolution in a Porous Medium Driven by Solute Diffusion. AIChE J. 48 (11): 2690–2710. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690481126.
Tsimpanogiannis, I. N. and Yortsos, Y. C. 2004. The Critical Gas Saturation in a Porous Medium in the Presence of Gravity. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 270 (2): 388–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2003.09.036.
Vittoratos, E. S. and West, C. C. 2010. Optimal Heavy Oil Waterflood Management May Differ From That of Light Oils. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil & Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 11–13 April. SPE-129545-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129545-MS.
Vittoratos, E. S., Coates, R. M., and West, C. C. 2011. Optimal Voidage Replacement Ratio for Communicating Heavy Oil Waterflood Wells. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 12–14 December. SPE-150576-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/150576-MS.
Vittoratos, E. S., Delgado, D. E., and Kovscek, A. R. 2013. Optimal Voidage Replacement Ratio for Viscous and Heavy Oil Waterfloods. Presented at the SPE Western Regional & AAPG Pacific Section Meeting, 2013 Joint Technical Conference, Monterey, California, 19–25 April. SPE-165349-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165349-MS.