Long-Period, Long-Duration Seismic Events and Their Probable Role in Reservoir Stimulation and Stage Productivity
- Abhash Kumar (AECOM, National Energy Technology Laboratory) | Erich Zorn (National Energy Technology Laboratory (currently with DiGioia Gray Inc.)) | Richard Hammack (National Energy Technology Laboratory) | William Harbert (University of Pittsburgh; National Energy Technology Laboratory)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 441 - 457
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Microseismicity, LPLD, Gas production, Hydraulic fracturing, Reservoir stimulation
- 26 in the last 30 days
- 95 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Hydraulic fracturing is a well-established technique to extract gas or liquid hydrocarbons from low-permeability formations such as shale and tight gas reservoirs. Diffusion of hydrofracturing fluid outward from the stimulated fractures into the target formation produces slip across pre-existing fractures and other discontinuities in the rock. Microseismic events recorded by downhole seismic-monitoring arrays are a manifestation of associated deformation. Recent investigations suggest that the total cumulative seismic moment of microearthquakes during hydraulic fracturing is only a small portion of the total seismic-energy release expected for the fluid volume injected into the formation. These observations suggest that other sources of energy release (such as inelastic deformation), contemporaneous with microseismicity, should be considered relevant to the hydraulic-fracturing process. Recent observations on long-period, long-duration (LPLD) seismic events suggest that slow slip emission along weaknesses that are misaligned with respect to the present-day stress field is likely an important mechanism of deformation and should be better understood and quantified in reservoir stimulations. In Morgantown, West Virginia, we conducted seismic monitoring of hydraulic-fracturing activity using an array of five broadband, three-component (3C) surface seismometers. Using this network, we identified 89 high-amplitude, impulsive events and 436 LPLD events, with highly emergent waveform characteristics. In these interpreted LPLD events, we observed a significant concentration of energy in the 0.8- to 3-Hz frequency range. During hydraulic fracturing, LPLD events were found to occur most frequently when the pumping pressure and rate were at or near maximum values. Because the main purpose of hydraulic fracturing is to stimulate oil and gas production from the less-permeable reservoir, we compared the relative production contributions/stage to the frequency of the occurrence of suspected LPLD events. We found a positive correlation between the frequency of LPLD events and stage-by-stage gas production, highlighting the potential contribution of slow deformation processes and its effectiveness in the reservoir stimulation.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Bollinger, G. A. 1969. Seismicity of the Central Appalachian States of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland—1758 through 1968. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 59 (5): 2103–2111.
Boroumand, N. and Eaton, D. 2012. Comparing Energy Calculations—Hydraulic Fracturing and Microseismic Monitoring. In 74th EAGE Conference and Exhibition. Extended Abstracts, C042. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.20148187.
Caffagni, E., Eaton, D., van der Baan, M. et al. 2015. Regional Seismicity: A Potential Pitfall for Identification of Long-Period Long-Duration Events. Geophysics 80 (1): A1–A5. https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2014-0382.1.
Das, I. and Zoback, M. D. 2011. Long Period Long Duration Seismic Events During Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation of a Shale Gas Reservoir. The Leading Edge 30 (7): 778–786. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.3609093.
Das, I. and Zoback, M. D. 2013. Long-Period, Long-Duration Seismic Events During Hydraulic Stimulation of Shale and Tight-Gas Reservoirs—Part 1: Waveform Characteristics. Geophysics 78 (6): KS97–KS108. https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2013-0164.1.
Eaton, D., van der Baan, M., Tary, B. et al. 2013. Broadband Microseismic Observations From a Montney Hydraulic Fracture Treatment, Northeastern British Columbia. CSEG Recorder 38 (3): 45–53.
Gu, H., Weng, X., Lund, J. et al. 2011. Hydraulic Fracture Crossing Natural Fracture at Non-Orthogonal Angles: A Criterion, Its Validation and Applications. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Conference and Exhibition, Woodlands, Texas, 24–26 January. SPE-139984-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/139984-MS.
Havskov, J. and Ottemoller, L. 1999. SeisAn Earthquake Analysis Software. Seism. Res. Lett. 70 (5): 532–-534. https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.70.5.532.
Hu, H., Li, A., and Zavala-Torres, R. 2017. Long-Period Long-Duration Seismic Events During Hydraulic Fracturing: Implications for Tensile Fracture Development. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44 (10): 4814–4819. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073582.
Kanamori, H. 1977. The Energy Release in Great Earthquakes. J. Geophys. Res. 82: 2981–2987. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB082i020p02981.
Kavousi, P., Carr, T., Wilson, T. et al. 2017. Correlating Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) to Natural Fracture Intensity for the Marcellus Shale. Presented at the SEG International Exposition and Annual Meeting, Houston, 24–29 September. Paper SEG-2017-17675576.
Kumar, A., Zorn, E., Hammack, R. et al. 2016. Surface Seismic Monitoring of Hydraulic Fracturing Activity in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 1–3 August. URTeC-2435574. https://doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2016-2435574.
Kumar, A., Zorn, E., Hammack, R. et al. 2017. Long-Period, Long-Duration Seismicity Observed During Hydraulic Fracturing of the Marcellus Shale in Greene County, Pennsylvania. The Leading Edge 36 (7): 580–587. https://doi.org/10.1190/tle36070580.1.
Montgomery, C. T. and Smith, M. B. 2010. Hydraulic Fracturing: History of an Enduring Technology. J Pet Technol 62 (12): 26–32. SPE-1210-0026-JPT. https://doi.org/10.2118/1210-0026-JPT.
Moos, D., Vassilellis, G., Cade, R. et al. 2011. Predicting Shale Reservoir Response to Stimulation in the Upper Devonian of West Virginia. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-145849-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/145849-MS.
Ruppert, L. F., Tewalt, S. J., Bragg, L. J. et al. 1996. Areal Extent of the Pittsburgh Coal Bed and Horizon and Mines Areas of the Pittsburgh Coal Bed. United States Geological Survey Open File Report 96-280.
Shelly, D. R., Beroza, G. C., Ide, S. et al. 2006. Low-Frequency Earthquakes in Shikoku, Japan, and Their Relationship to Episodic Tremor and Slip. Nature 442: 188–191. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04931.
Sicking, C., Vermiliye, J., Geiser, P. et al. 2013. Permeability Field Imaging From Microseismic. Geophysical Society of Houston Journal 3: 11–14. https://doi.org/10.1190/segam2012-1383.1.
Walsh, F. and Zoback, M. D. 2015. Oklahoma’s Recent Earthquakes and Saltwater Disposal. Sci. Adv. 1 (5): e1500195. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500195.
Warpinski, N. R., Du, J., and Zimmer, U. 2012. Measurements of Hydraulic-Fracture-Induced Seismicity in Gas Shales. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6–8 February. SPE-151597-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/151597-PA.
Wilson, T., Hart, A., and Sullivan, P. 2016. Interrelationships of Marcellus Shale Gas Production to Frac-Induced Microseismicity, Interpreted Minor Faults and Fractures Zones, and Stimulated Reservoir Volume, Greene County, Pennsylvania. Interpretation 4: T15–T30. https://doi.org/10.1190/INT-2015-0045.1.
Zecevic, M., Daniel, G., and Jurick, D. 2016a. Questioning the Existence of Hydraulic Fracturing-Induced LPLD Events in a Barnett Shale, Texas, Microseismic Dataset. In Sixth EAGE Workshop on Passive Seismic, Extended Abstracts. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201600004.
Zecevic, M., Daniel, G., and Jurick, D. 2016b. On the Nature of Long-Period Long-Duration Seismic Events Detected During Hydraulic Fracturing. Geophysics 81 (3): KS113–KS121. https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2015-0524.1.
Zoback, M. D., Kohli, A., and Das, I. et al. 2012. The Importance of Slow Slip on Faults During Hydraulic Fracturing Stimulation of Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Americas Unconventional Resources Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 5–7 June. SPE-155476-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/155476-MS.