Preformed Partial Gel Injection Chased by Low-Salinity Waterflooding in Fractured Carbonate Cores
- Ali Khayoon Alhuraishawy (Missan Oil Company and Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Baojun Bai (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mingzhen Wei (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Abdullah Almansour (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST))
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 110 - 121
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Waterflooding, In-Depth Water Diversion, Gel Treatment, Fractured Reservoir, Low Salinity Waterflooding
- 33 in the last 30 days
- 90 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Fractures and oil-wet conditions significantly limit oil recovery in carbonate reservoirs. Gel treatment has been applied in injector wells to modify the prevailing reservoir streamlines and significantly reduce fracture permeability, whereas low-salinity waterflooding has been applied experimentally to modify rock wettability toward water-wet for improved oil recovery. However, both processes have limitations that cannot be resolved using a single method. The objective of this study was to test whether low-salinity water could enable gel particles to move deeply into fractures to efficiently increase oil recovery and control water production. A semitransparent fracture model of carbonate cores and acrylic plates was built to study the effect of low-salinity waterflooding, fracture width, gel-injection volume, and fracture uniformity on oil recovery and to redirect the flow path to unswept zones. Preformed partial gel (PPG) and brine movements were visible through the model’s transparent acrylic plate. Seawater was used for brine flooding and to prepare swollen particles; the seawater was diluted 100 times to create low-salinity water. A light crude oil was used, with 10-cp viscosity. Low-salinity water was injected after gel placement to test the gel-plugging efficiency. The results showed that the low-salinity water could improve gel propagation into the fracture and increase oil recovery because the gel strength (apparent viscosity) decreased as the brine concentration decreased. The gel-injection volume had a significant effect on the oil-recovery factor when seawater flooding followed the gel-injection process, although there was less of an effect when the gel was followed by low-salinity waterflooding. Moreover, the effect of low-salinity waterflooding on gel propagation decreased as the fracture width decreased. In addition, the resulting fracture uniformity illustrates a viable effect of the in-depth water-diversion treatment.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Al Shalabi, E. W. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2017. Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstone and Carbonate Reservoirs. Houston: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Aldhaheri, M. N. R. 2017. Screening Guidelines and Data Analysis for the Application of In-Situ Polymer Gels for Injection Well Conformance Improvement. PhD dissertation, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri.
Alhuraishawy, A. K. and Bai, B. 2017. Evaluation of Combined Low-Salinity Water and Microgel Treatments to Improve Oil Recovery Using Partial Fractured Carbonate Models. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 158 (September): 80–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2017.07.016.
Alhuraishawy, A. K., Imqam, A., Wei, M. et al. 2016. Coupling Low Salinity Water Flooding and Preformed Particle Gel to Enhance Oil Recovery for Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting Conference, Anchorage, 23–26 May. SPE-180386-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180386-MS.
Alhuraishawy, A. K., Sun, X., Bai, B. et al. 2017. Improve Plugging Efficiency in Fractured Sandstone Reservoirs by Mixing Different Preformed Particles Gel Size. Presented at the SPE Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Annual Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, 24–27 April. SPE-188023-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/188023-MS.
Anderson, W. G. 1986. Wettability Literature Survey—Part 1: Rock/Oil/Brine Interactions and the Effects of Core Handling on Wettability. J Pet Technol 38 (10): 1125–1144. SPE-13932-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13932-PA.
Austad, T., RezaeiDoust, A., and Puntervold, T. 2010. Chemical Mechanism of Low Salinity Water Flooding in Sandstone Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129767-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129767-MS.
Bai, B., Li, L., Liu, Y. et al. 2007a. Preformed Particle Gel for Conformance Control: Factors Affecting its Properties and Applications. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (4): 415–421. SPE-89389-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/89389-PA.
Bai, B., Liu, Y., Coste, J.-P. et al. 2007b. Preformed Particle Gel for Conformance Control: Transport Mechanism Through Porous Media. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (2): 176–184. SPE-89468-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/89468-PA.
Bai, B., Wei, M., and Liu, Y. 2013. Field and Lab Experience With a Successful Preformed Particle Gel Conformance Control Technology. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 23–26 March. SPE-164511-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164511-MS.
Bratteka°s, B., Graue, A., and Seright, R. 2016. Low-Salinity Chase Waterfloods Improve Performance of Cr(III)-Acetate Hydrolyzed Polyacryaminde Gel in Fractured Cores. SPE Res Eval & Eng 19 (2): 331–339. SPE-173749-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173749-PA.
Chauveteau, G., Tabary, R., Bon, C. et al. 2003. In-Depth Permeability Control by Adsorption of Soft Size-Controlled Microgels. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 13–14 May. SPE-82228-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/82228-MS.
Crabtree, M., Eslinger, D., Fletcher, P. et al. 1999. Fighting Scale: Removal and Prevention. Oilfield Rev. 11 (3): 30–45.
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T., and Strand, S. 2012. Water-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by “Smart Water” in Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April. SPE-154570-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154570-MS.
Han, M., Alshehri, A. J., Krinis, D. et al. 2014. State-of-the-Art of In-Depth Fluid Diversion Technology: Enhancing Reservoir Oil Recovery by Gel Treatments. Presented at the SPE Saudi Arabia Section Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, 21–24 April. SPE-172186-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/172186-MS.
Huang, D. D. and Honarpour, M. M. 1998. Capillary End Effects in Coreflood Calculations. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 19 (1–2): 103–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(97)00040-5.
Imqam, A., Bai, B., Al Ramadan, M. et al. 2015. Preformed-Particle-Gel Extrusion Through Open Conduits During Conformance-Control Treatments. SPE J. 20 (5): 1083–1093. SPE-169107-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/169107-PA.
Imqam, A., Wang, Z., Bai, B. et al. 2016. Effect of Heterogeneity on Propagation, Placement, and Conformance Control of Preformed Particle Gel Treatment in Fractures. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, 11–13 April. SPE-179705-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179705-MS.
Muhammed, F. A., Bai, B., Imqam, A. et al. 2014. Preformed Particle Gel-Enhanced Surfactant Imbibition for Improving Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, Calgary, 10–12 June. SPE-170067-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170067-MS.
RezaeiDoust, A., Puntervold, T., and Austad, T. 2011. Chemical Verification of the EOR Mechanism by Using Low Saline/Smart Water in Sandstone. Energy Fuels 25 (5): 2151–2162. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef200215y.
RezaeiDoust, A., Puntervold, T., Strand, S. et al. 2009. Smart Water as Wettability Modifier in Carbonate and Sandstone: A Discussion of Similarities/Differences in the Chemical Mechanisms. Energy Fuels 23 (9): 4479–4485. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef900185q.
Seright, R. S. 1995. Gel Placement in Fractured Systems. SPE Prod & Fac 10 (4): 241–248. SPE-27740-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/27740-PA.
Seright, R. S. 1997. Use of Preformed Gels for Conformance Control in Fractured Systems. SPE Prod & Fac 12 (1): 59–65. SPE-35351-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/35351-PA.
Seright, R. S. 2001. Gel Propagation Through Fractures. SPE Prod & Fac 16 (4): 225–231. SPE-74602-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/74602-PA.
Shehata, A. M., Alotaibi, M. B., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2014. Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs: Does the Salinity Matter? SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (3): 304–313. SPE-170254-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170254-PA.
Wang, H., Guo, W., and Jiang, H. 2001. Study and Application of Weak Gel System Prepared by Complex Polymer Used for Depth Profile Modification. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 13–16 February. SPE-65379-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/65379-MS.
Wang, W., Gu, Y., and Liu, Y. 2003. Applications of Weak Gel for In-Depth Profile Modification and Oil Displacement. J Can Pet Technol 42 (6): 54–61. PETSOC-03-06-04. https://doi.org/10.2118/03-06-04.
Yousef, A. A., Al-Saleh, S. H., Al-Kaabi, A. et al. 2011. Laboratory Investigation of the Impact of Injection-Water Salinity and Ionic Content on Oil Recovery From Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (5): 578–593. SPE-137634-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/137634-PA.
Yousef, A. A., Al-Saleh, S., Al-Jawfi, M. S. 2012. Improved/Enhanced Oil Recovery from Carbonate Reservoirs by Tuning Injection Water Salinity and Ionic Content. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 14–18 April. SPE-154076-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154076-MS.
Zhang, H. and Bai, B. 2011. Preformed-Particle-Gel Transport Through Open Fractures and Its Effect on Water Flow. SPE J. 16 (2): 388–400. SPE-129908-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/129908-PA.