Effect of Natural Fractures on Wormhole-Propagation Behavior
- Jianye Mou (China University of Petroleum Beijing, State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting) | Xiaoshan Yu (Sichuan-to-East Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Branch Company of SINOPEC) | Lei Wang (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Shicheng Zhang (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Xinfang Ma (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Xinrun Lyu (China University of Petroleum, Beijing)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 145 - 158
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- acid penetration, Monte Carlo, natural fracture, wormhole, modeling
- 11 in the last 30 days
- 163 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Natural fractures have significant influence on flow fields, thus affecting wormhole pattern in acidizing. This paper summarizes our research on wormholing behavior in naturally fractured carbonates. First, statistical natural-fracture models are established using the Monte Carlo method. Second, a two-scale continuum wormhole model is established to simulate wormhole propagation with natural fractures. Finally, extensive numerical simulation is conducted to investigate wormhole behavior and the effect of the natural-fracture parameters on wormhole pattern. In addition, possible wormhole-penetration distance is discussed. This study provides a theoretical basis for matrix-acidizing designs in naturally fractured carbonates.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Balakotaiah, V. and West, D. H. 2002. Shape Normalization and Analysis of the Mass Transfer Controlled Regime in Catalytic Monolith. Chem. Eng. Sci. 57 (8): 1269–1286. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509(02)00059-3.
Buijse, M. A. 2000. Understanding Wormholing Mechanisms Can Improve Acid Treatments in Carbonate Formations. SPE Prod & Fac 15 (3): 168–175. SPE-65068-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/65068-PA.
Brinkman, H. C. 1947. A Calculation of the Viscous Force Exerted by a Flowing Fluid on a Dense Swarm of Particles. J. Appl. Sci. Res. A1: 27–34. Daccord, G., Lenormand, R., and Liétard, O. 1993a. Chemical Dissolution of a Porous Medium by a Reactive Fluid—I. Model for the “Wormholing” Phenomenon. Chem. Eng. Sci. 48 (1): 169–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(93)80293-Y.
Daccord, G., Liétard, O., and Lenormand, R. 1993b. Chemical Dissolution of a Porous Medium by a Reactive Fluid—II. Convection vs. Reaction, Behavior Diagram. Chem. Eng. Sci. 48 (1): 179–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(93)80294-Z.
Daccord, G., Touboul, E., and Lenormand, R. 1989. Carbonate Acidizing: Toward a Quantitative Model of the Wormholing Phenomenon. SPE Prod & Eng 4 (4): 63–68. SPE-16887-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/16887-PA.
Dershowitz, W. S. and Herda, H. H. 1992. Interpretation of Fracture Spacing and Intensity. Presented at the 33rd U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Santa Fe, New Mexico, 3–5 June. ARMA-92-0757.
Deutsch, C. V. and Journel, A. G. 1998. GSLIB Geostatistical Software Library and User’s Guide. New York City: Oxford University Press. DeGroot, M. H. and Schervish, M. J. 2011. Probability and Statistics, fourth edition. Boston, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
Fredd, C. N. and Fogler, H. S. 1999. Optimum Conditions for Wormhole Formation in Carbonate Porous Media: Influence of Transport and Reaction. SPE J. 4 (3): 196–205. SPE-56995-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/56995-PA.
Furui, K., Burton, R. C., Burkhead, D. W. et al. 2012. A Comprehensive Model of High-Rate Matrix-Acid Stimulation for Long Horizontal Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs: Part I—Scaling Up Core-Level Acid Wormholing to Field Treatments. SPE J. 17 (1): 271–279. SPE-134265-PA. https://doi.org/ 10.2118/134265-PA.
Gdanski, R. 1999. A Fundamentally New Model of Acid Wormholing in Carbonates. Presented at SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 31 May–1 June. SPE-54719-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/54719-MS.
Hardy, H. H. and Beier, R. A. 1994. Fractals in Reservoir Engineering. River Edge, New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing.
Hoefner, M. L. and Fogler, H. S. 1988. Pore Evolution and Channel Formation During Flow and Reaction in Porous Media. AIChE J. 34 (1): 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690340107.
Hoefner, M. L. and Fogler, H. S. 1989. Fluid-Velocity and Reaction-Rate Effects During Carbonate Acidizing: Application of Network Model. SPE Prod Eng 4 (1): 56–62. SPE-15573-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15573-PA.
Huang, T., Hill, A. D., and Schechter R. S. 2000. Reaction Rate and Fluid Loss: The Keys to Wormhole Initiation and Propagation in Carbonate Acidizing. SPE J. 5 (3): 287–292. SPE-65400-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/65400-PA.
Hung, K. M., Hill, A. D., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1989. A Mechanistic Model of Wormhole Growth in Carbonate Matrix Acidizing and Acid Fracturing. J Pet Technol 41 (1): 59–66. SPE-16886-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/16886-PA.
Izgec, O., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. D. 2009. Models and Methods for Understanding of Early Acid Breakthrough Observed in Acid Core-Floods of Vuggy Carbonates. Presented at the 8th SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 27–29 May. SPE-122357-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/122357-MS.
Jin, C. 2005. Study on Random Number Generator and Random Sampling in Monte Carlo Method. PhD dissertation, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
Karimi-Fard, M., Durlofsky, L. J., and Aziz, K. 2004. An Efficient Discrete-Fracture Model Applicable for General-Purpose Reservoir Simulators. SPE J. 9 (2): 227–236. SPE-88812-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/88812-PA.
Lehmer, D.H. 1951. Mathematical Methods in Large-Scale Computing Units. Ann. Computing Lab. Harvard Univ. 26: 141–146.
Liu, M., Zhang, S., and Mou, J. 2012. Effect of Normally Distributed Porosities on Dissolution Pattern in Carbonate Acidizing. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 94–95 (September): 28–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.06.021.
Mauldon, M., Rohrbaugh, M. B., Dunne, W. M. et al. 1999. Mean Fracture Trace Length and Density Estimators Using Circular Windows. Presented at Vail Rocks 1999, the 37th US Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Vail, Colorado, 7–9 June. ARMA-99-0785.
Mou, J. and Zhang, S. 2015. Modeling Acid Leakoff During Multistage Alternate Injection of Pad and Acid in Acid Fracturing. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 26 (September): 1161–1173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2015.08.007.
Mou, J., Liu, M., Zhang, K. et al. 2015. Diversion Conditions for Viscoelastic Surfactant-Based Self-Diversion Acid in Carbonate Acidizing. SPE Prod & Oper 30 (2): 191–199. SPE-173898-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173898-PA.
Nelson, R. A. 2001. Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, second edition. Boston, Massachusetts: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Panga, M. K. R., Ziauddin, M., and Balakotaiah, V. 2005. Two-Scale Continuum Model for Simulation of Wormholes in Carbonate Acidization. AIChE J. 51 (12): 3231–3248. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.10574.
Pichler, T., Frick, T. P., Economides, M. J. et al. 1992. Stochastic Modeling of Wormhole Growth in Carbonate Acidizing With Biased Randomness. Presented at European Petroleum Conference, Cannes, France, 16–18 November. SPE-25004-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/25004-MS.
Qin, G., Chen, R., Gong, B. et al. 2012. Data-Driven Monte Carlo Simulations in Estimating the Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) by Hydraulic Fracturing Treatments. Presented at SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4–7 June. SPE-154537-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154537-MS.
Tardy, P. M. J., Lecerf, B., and Chrisianti, Y. 2007. An Experimentally Validated Wormhole Model for Self-Diverting and Conventional Acids in Carbonate Rocks Under Radial Flow Conditions. Presented at the European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 30 May– 1 June. SPE-107854-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/107854-MS.
Wang, Y., Hill, A. D., and Schechter, R. S. 1993. The Optimum Injection Rate for Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Formations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3–6 October. SPE-26578-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/26578-MS.
Zhang, Y., Yang, S., Zhang, S. et al. 2014. Wormhole Propagation Behavior and Its Effect on Acid Leakoff Under In Situ Conditions in Acid Fracturing. Transport Porous Med. 101 (1): 99–114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-013-0233-z.