Assessment of the Equivalent Sandbed Roughness and the Interfacial Friction Factor in Hole Cleaning With Water in a Fully Eccentric Horizontal Annulus
- Majid Bizhani (University of Alberta) | Ergun Kuru (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,748 - 1,767
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Hole cleaning, Equivalent sand bed roughness, Interfacial friction factor, Sediment transport, Turbulent flow, PIV
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 190 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
In this study, we have investigated the turbulent flow of water over the sandbed deposited in a horizontal eccentric annulus. The primary objective was to determine the effect of the presence of a sandbed on the parameters strongly involved in the bed-erosion process, such as the local fluid-velocity profiles near the interface, the equivalent sandbed roughness, and the average and the interfacial friction factors. The particle-image-velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to measure the velocity distribution at the water/sandbed interface. The bedload transport of particles caused an abrupt increase in the equivalent sandbed roughness. Analyses of the velocity profiles in the wall units confirmed that the sandbed roughness is variable and can be several times greater than the mean particle size. The interfacial (fi) and the average friction factors (fa) were evaluated and compared with flow under the stationary-bed and the bedload-transport conditions. The interfacial friction factor increased dramatically at the onset of the bed erosion. We have also found that depending on the bed height (or the surface area of the bed at the interface), the interfacial friction factor can be significantly different from the average friction factor. The results presented here provide much-needed experimental data for the validation of the mechanistic, semimechanistic (empirical), and numerical [computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD)] models of the bed erosion process. The major conclusion of the study is that the difference between the average and interfacial friction factors should be taken into account for more-realistic multilayer modeling of the hole cleaning.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||20|
Adari, R. B. 1999. Development of Correlations Relating Bed Erosion to Flowing Time for Near Horizontal Wells. Master’s thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa.
Adari, R. B., Miska, S., Kuru, E. et al. 2000. Selecting Drilling Fluid Properties and Flow Rates for Effective Hole Cleaning in High-Angle and Horizontal Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Dallas, 1–4 October. SPE-63050-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/63050-MS.
Bagchi, P. and Balachandar, S. 2003. Effect of Turbulence on the Drag and Lift of a Particle. Phys. Fluid. 15 (11): 3496–3513. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1616031.
Best, J., Bennett, S., Bridge, J. et al. 1997. Turbulence Modulation and Particle Velocities over Flat Sand Beds at Low Transport Rates. J. Hydraul. Eng. 123 (12): 1118–1129. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1997)123:12(1118).
Bigillon, F., Couronne, G., Champagne, J. Y. et al. 2006. Investigation of Flow Hydrodynamics Under Equilibrium Bedload Transport Conditions Using PIV. Proc., River Flow 2006, International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, Lisbon, Portugal, 6–8 September, 859-865. London: CRC Press.
Bizhani, M. 2013. Solids Transport With Turbulent Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluid in the Horizontal Annuli. Master’s thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Bizhani, M., Corredor, F. E. R., and Kuru, E. 2016a. Quantitative Evaluation of Critical Conditions Required for Effective Hole Cleaning in Coiled-Tubing Drilling of Horizontal Wells. SPE Drill & Compl 31 (3): 188–199. SPE-174404-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/174404-PA.
Bizhani, M., Kuru, E., and Ghaemi, S. 2016b. Effect of Near Wall Turbulence on the Particle Removal From Bed Deposits in Horizontal Wells. Proc., ASME 2016 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, Busan, South Korea, 19–24 June, V008T11A039. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2016-54051.
Bizhani, M. and Kuru, E. 2017. Effect of Sandbed Deposits on the Characteristics of Turbulent Flow of Water in Horizontal Annuli. ASME Fluid Engineering. Paper under review.
Bizhani, M. and Kuru, E. 2018. Critical Review of Mechanistic and Empirical (Semimechanistic) Models for Particle Removal From Sandbed Deposits in Horizontal Annuli With Water. SPE J. 23 (2): 237–255. SPE-187948-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/187948-PA.
Brown, N. P., Bern, P. A., and Weaver, A. 1989. Cleaning Deviated Holes: New Experimental and Theoretical Studies. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, New Orleans, 28 February–3 March. SPE-18636-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/18636-MS.
Carbonneau, P. E. and Bergeron, N. E. 2000. The Effect of Bedload Transport on Mean and Turbulent Flow Properties. Geomorphology 35 (3–4): 267–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555x(00)00046-5.
Chan-Braun, C. 2012. Turbulent Open Channel Flow, Sediment Erosion and Sediment Transport. PhD dissertation, Institut für Hydromechanik, Karlsruhe, Germany.
Chan-Braun, C., Garcia-Villalba, M., and Uhlmann, M. 2011. Force and Torque Acting on Particles in a Transitionally Rough Open-Channel Flow. J. Fluid Mech. 684 (10 October): 441–474. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2011.311.
Clark, R. K. and Bickham, K. L. 1994. A Mechanistic Model for Cuttings Transport. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 25–28 September. SPE-28306-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/28306-MS.
Duan, M., Miska, S. Z., Yu, M. et al. 2007. Critical Conditions for Effective Sand-Sized Solids Transport in Horizontal and High-Angle Wells. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 31 March–3 April. SPE-106707-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106707-MS.
Duan, M. Q., Miska, S., Yu, M. et al. 2009. Critical Conditions for Effective Sand-Sized-Solids Transport in Horizontal and High-Angle Wells. SPE Drill & Compl 24 (2): 229–238. SPE-104192-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/104192-PA.
Escudier, M. P. and Cullen, L. M. 1996. Flow of a Shear-Thinning Liquid in a Cylindrical Container With a Rotating End Wall. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 12 (4): 381–387. https://doi.org/10.1016/0894-1777(95)00137-9.
Flack, K. A. and Schultz, M. P. 2014. Roughness Effects on Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows. Phys. Fluid. 26 (10): 101305. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4896280.
Ford, J. T., Peden, J. M., Oyeneyin, M. B. et al. 1990. Experimental Investigation of Drilled Cuttings Transport in Inclined Boreholes. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 23–26 September. SPE-20421-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/20421-MS.
Gaudio, R., Miglio, A., and Dey, S. 2010. Non-Universality of von Ka´rma´n’s j in Fluvial Streams. J. Hydraul. Res. 48 (5): 658–663. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2010.507338.
Gore, R. A. and Crowe, C. T. 1991. Modulation of Turbulence by a Dispersed Phase. J. Fluids Eng. 113 (2): 304–307. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2909497.
Guo, X.-l., Wang, Z. and Long, Z. 2010. Study on Three-Layer Unsteady Model of Cuttings Transport for Extended-Reach Well. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 73 (1–2): 171–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2010.05.020.
Hemphill, T. and Larsen, T. I. 1996. Hole-Cleaning Capabilities of Water- and Oil-Based Drilling Fluids: A Comparative Experimental Study. SPE Drill & Compl 11 (4): 201–207. SPE-26328-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/26328-PA.
Houssais, M., Ortiz, C. P., Durian, D. J. et al. 2015. Onset of Sediment Transport is a Continuous Transition Driven by Fluid Shear and Granular Creep. Nature Commun. 6: 6527. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7527.
Iyoho, A. W. and Takahashi, H. 1993. Modeling Unstable Cuttings Transport in Horizontal, Eccentric Wellbores. SPE-27416-MS (unsolicited).
Japper-Jaafar, A., Escudier, M. P., and Poole, R. J. 2010. Laminar, Transitional and Turbulent Annular Flow of Drag-Reducing Polymer Solutions. J. Non-Newton. Fluid 165 (19–20): 1357–1372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2010.07.001.
Kelessidis, V. C. and Bandelis, G. E. 2004. Flow Patterns and Minimum Suspension Velocity for Efficient Cuttings Transport in Horizontal and Deviated Wells in Coiled-Tubing Drilling. SPE Drill & Compl 19 (4): 213–227. SPE-81746-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/81746-PA.
Kundu, P. K., Cohen, I. M., and Dowling, D. R. 2012. Fluid Mechanics, fifth edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
LaVision DAVIS 8.3.0. 2015. https://www.lavision.de/en/products/davis-software/index.php.
Li, J. and Luft, B. 2014a. Overview of Solids Transport Studies and Applications in Oil and Gas Industry—Experimental Work. Presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Exploration & Production Technical Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 14–16 October. SPE-171285-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171285-MS.
Li, J. and Luft, B. 2014b. Overview Solids Transport Study and Application in Oil-Gas Industry-Theoretical Work. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 10–12 December. IPTC-17832-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17832-MS.
Martins, A. L., Sa, C. H. M., Lourenco, A. M. F. et al. 1996. Experimental Determination of Interfacial Friction Factor in Horizontal Drilling With a Bed of Cuttings. Presented at the SPE Latin America/Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 23–26 April. SPE-36075-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/36075-MS.
Melling, A. 1997. Tracer Particles and Seeding for Particle Image Velocimetry. Meas. Sci. Technol. 8 (12): 1406–1416. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/8/12/005.
Mitchell, R. F., Miska, S., Aadnøy, B. S. et al. 2011. Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering. Richardson, Texas: Textbook Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Miyazaki, K., Chen, G., Yamamoto, F. et al. 1999. PIV Measurement of Particle Motion in Spiral Gas-Solid Two-Phase Flow. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 19 (4): 194–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0894-1777(99)00020-5.
National Instrument. 2007. LabView manuals, http://www.ni.com/manuals/ (accessed 30 May 2018).
Nezu, I. and Sanjou, M. 2011. PIV and PTV Measurements in Hydro-Sciences with Focus on Turbulent Open-Channel Flows. J. Hydro.-Environ. Res. 5 (4): 215–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jher.2011.05.004.
Nikora, V. and Goring, D. 2000. Flow Turbulence Over Fixed and Weakly Mobile Gravel Beds. J. Hydraul. Eng. 126 (9): 679–690. https://doi.org/doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2000)126:9(679).
Nouri, J. M., Umur, H., and Whitelaw, J. H. 1993. Flow of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids in Concentric and Eccentric Annuli. J. Fluid Mech. 253 (August): 617–641. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112093001922.
Owen, P. R. 1964. Saltation of Uniform Grains in Air. J. Fluid Mech. 20 (2): 225–242. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112064001173.
Ozbayoglu, M. E., Saasen, A., Sorgun, M. et al. 2010. Critical Fluid Velocities for Removing Cuttings Bed Inside Horizontal and Deviated Wells. Petrol. Sci. Technol. 28 (6): 594–602. https://doi.org/10.1080/10916460903070181.
Poole, R. J. 2010. Development-Length Requirements for Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Concentric Annuli. J. Fluids Eng. 132 (6): 064501. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4001694.
Rabenjafimanantsoa, H. A. 2007. Particle Transport and Dynamics in Turbulent Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids. PhD dissertation, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
Rabenjafimanantsoa, H. A., Time, W. R., and Saasen, A. 2005. Flow Regimes over Particle Beds Experimental Studies of Particle Transport in Horizontal Pipes. Annu. Trans. Nordic Rheol. Soc. 13: 99–106.
Ramadan, A., Skalle, P., and Johansen, S. T. 2003. A Mechanistic Model to Determine the Critical Flow Velocity Required Initiating the Movement of Spherical Bed Particles in Inclined Channels. Chem. Eng. Sci. 58 (10): 2153–2163. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509(03)00061-7.
Reed, T. D. and Pilehvari, A. A. 1993. A New Model for Laminar, Transitional, and Turbulent Flow of Drilling Muds. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 21–23 March. SPE-25456-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/25456-MS.
Smith, J. D. and McLean, S. R. 1977. Spatially Averaged Flow Over a Wavy Surface. J. Geophys. Res. 82 (12): 1735–1746. https://doi.org/10.1029/JC082i012p01735.
Song, T., Chiew, Y. M., and Chin, C. O. 1998. Effect of Bed-Load Movement on Flow Friction Factor. J. Hydraul. Eng. 124 (2): 165–175. https://doi.org/10.1061/(Asce)0733-9429(1998)124:2(165).
Sorgun, M., Aydin, I., and Ozbayoglu, M. E. 2011. Friction Factors for Hydraulic Calculations Considering Presence of Cuttings and Pipe Rotation in Horizontal/Highly-Inclined Wellbores. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 78 (2): 407–414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.06.013.
Southard, J. 2006. Introduction to Fluid Motions, Sediment Transport, and Current-Generated Sedimentary Structures. MIT OpenCourseWare, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, https://ocw.mit.edu.
Sumer, B. M., Chua, L. H. C., Cheng, N.-S. et al. 2003. Influence of Turbulence on Bed Load Sediment Transport. J. Hydraul. Eng. 129 (8): 585–596. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2003)129:8(585).
Televantos, Y., Shook, C., Carleton, A. et al. 1979. Flow of Slurries of Coarse Particles at High Solids Concentrations. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 57 (3): 255–262. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450570302.
Tsuji, Y., Kato, N., and Tanaka, T. 1991. Experiments on the Unsteady Drag and Wake of a Sphere at High Reynolds Numbers. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 17 (3): 343–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(91)90004-M.
Wiberg, P. L. and Rubin, D. M. 1989. Bed Roughness Produced by Saltating Sediment. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 94 (4): 5011–5016. https://doi.org/10.1029/JC094iC04p05011.
Zeinali, H., Toma, P., and Kuru, E. 2012. Effect of Near-Wall Turbulence on Selective Removal of Particles From Sandbeds Deposited in Pipelines. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 134 (2): 021003. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4006041.