Onset of Liquid-Film Reversal in Upward-Inclined Pipes
- Yilin Fan (University of Tulsa) | Eduardo Pereyra (University of Tulsa) | Cem Sarica (University of Tulsa)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,630 - 1,647
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- low liquid loading, Inclined Pipe Flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, Liquid film reversal, Onset of liquid accumulation
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 160 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Accumulation of oil and/or water at the bottom of an upward-inclined pipe is known to be the source of many industrial problems, such as corrosion and terrain slugging. Therefore, accurate prediction of the critical gas velocity that can avoid the liquid accumulation is of great importance.
An experimental study of onset of liquid-film reversal, which is believed to be the main cause of liquid accumulation, was conducted in a hilly-valley test section at low-liquid-loading condition. A new, easily implemented mechanistic model to predict critical gas velocity, which is specifically developed based on the liquid-film reversal in stratified flow, is proposed in this work. The new model was verified with the data acquired in the study and other studies from the open literature, showing a fair agreement. This work also reviewed and evaluated other critical-gas-velocity-prediction models. The new model performs best compared with other models, especially in terms of the inclination angle and liquid-flow-rate effect on critical gas velocity. The total average absolute error was reduced 6.0% compared with the current best-prediction model (Zhang et al. 2003), and 38.2% for the widely used Turner et al. (1969) droplet-removal model.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||18|
Alsaadi, Y. 2013. Liquid Loading in Highly Deviated Gas Wells. Master’s thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa (December 2013).
Alsaadi, Y., Pereyra, E., Torres, C. et al. 2015. Liquid Loading of Highly Deviated Gas Wells from 60° to 88°. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-174852-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174852-MS.
Ambrosini, W., Andreussi, P., and Azzopardi, B. J. 1991. A Physically Based Correlation for Drop Size in Annular Flow. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 17 (4): 497–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(91)90045-5.
Andreussi, P. and Persen, L. N. 1987. Stratified Gas-Liquid Flow in Downwardly Inclined Pipes. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 13 (4): 565–575. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(87)90022-X.
Andritsos, N. and Hanratty, T. J. 1987. Influence of Interfacial Waves in Stratified Gas-Liquid Flows. AIChE J. 33 (3): 444–454. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690330310.
Baker, A., Nielson, K., and Gabb, A. 1988. Pressure Loss, Liquid-Holdup Calculations Developed. Oil Gas J. 86 (11): 55–59.
Barnea, D. 1986. Transition from Annular Flow and from Dispersed-Bubble Flow—Unified Models for the Whole Range of Pipe Inclination. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 12 (5): 733–744. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(86)90048-0.
Belfroid, S., Schiferli, W., Alberts, G. et al. 2008. Predicting Onset and Dynamic Behavior of Liquid Loading Gas Wells. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21–24 September. SPE-115567-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/115567-MS.
Bendiksen, K. H., Maines, D., Moe, R. et al. 1991. The Dynamic Two-Fluid Model OLGA: Theory and Application. SPE Prod. Eng. 6 (2): 171–180. SPE-19451-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/19451-PA.
Biberg, D. 1999. Liquid Wall Friction in Two-Phase Turbulent Gas Laminar Liquid Stratified Pipe Flow. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 77 (6): 1073–1082. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450770601.
Biberg, D., Staff, G., and Hoyer, N. 2015. Accounting for Flow Model Uncertainties in Gas-Condensate Field Design Using the OLGA High Definition Stratified Flow Model. Presented at the 17th International Conference on Multiphase Production Technology, Cannes, France, 10–12 June. BHR-2015-G5.
Brito, R. 2015. Effect of HorizontalWell Trajectory on Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow Behavior. PhD dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa (December 2015).
Brito, R., Pereyra, E., and Sarica, C. 2016a. A Novel Analysis to Detect When and Where Liquid Loading Occurs in Horizontal Gas Wells—Case Studies. Presented at SPE North America Artificial Lift Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 25–27 October. SPE-181223-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181223-MS.
Brito, R., Pereyra, E., and Sarica, C. 2016b. Effect of Well Trajectory on Liquid Removal in Horizontal Gas Wells. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Dubai, 26–28 September. SPE-181423-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181423-MS.
Carimalo, F., Fouché, I., Hauguel, R. et al. 2008. Flow Modeling to Optimize Wet Gas Pipeline Water Management. Presented at Corrosion 2008, New Orleans, 16–20 March. NACE-08137.
Chen, X. T., Cal, X. D., and Brill, J. P. 1997. Gas-Liquid Stratified-Wavy Flow in Horizontal Pipelines. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 119 (4): 209–216. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2794992.
Cheremisinoff, N. P. and Davis, E. J. 1979. Stratified Turbulent-Turbulent Gas-Liquid Flow. AIChE J. 25 (1): 48–56. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690250106.
Churchill, S. W. 1977. Friction-Factor Equation Spans All Fluid-Flow Regimes. Chem. Eng. J. 84 (24): 91–92.
Cohen, L. S. and Hanratty, T. J. 1968. Effect of Waves at a Gas-Liquid Interface on a Turbulent Air Flow. J. Fluid Mech. 31 (3): 467–479. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112068000285.
Coleman, S. B., Clay, H. B., McCurdy, D. G. et al. 1991. A New Look at Predicting Gas-Well Load-Up. J Pet Technol 43 (3): 329–333. SPE-20280-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/20280-PA.
Dallman, J. C., Jones B. G., and Hanratty, T. J. 1979. Interpretation of Entrainment Measurements in Annular Gas–Liquid Flows. In Two-Phase Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer in Chemical, Process and Energy Engineering System, ed. F. Durst, G. V. Tsiklauri, and N. H. Afgan, Vol. 2, 681–693. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
Fan, Y. 2017. A Study of the Onset of Liquid Accumulation and Pseudo-Slug Flow Characterization. PhD dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa (May 2017).
Fan, Y., Pereyra, E., Torres-Monzon, C. F. et al. 2015. Experimental Study on the Onset of Intermittent Flow and Pseudo-Slug Characteristics in Upward Inclined Pipes. Presented at the 17th International Conference on Multiphase Technology, Cannes, France, 10–12 June. BHR-2015-B1.
Fore, L. B., Beus, S. G., and Bauer, R. C. 2000. Interfacial Friction in Gas–Liquid Annular Flow: Analogies to Full and Transition Roughness. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 26 (11): 1755–1769. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9322(99)00114-7.
Grolman, E. and Fortuin, J. M. H. 1997. Liquid Hold-Up, Pressure Gradient, and Flow Patterns in Inclined Gas-Liquid Pipe Flow. Exp. Therm Fluid Sci. 15 (3): 174–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0894-1777(97)00021-6.
Guner, M. 2012. Liquid Loading of Gas Wells with Deviations from 0° to 45°. Master’s thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa.
Guner, M., Pereyra, E., Sarica, C. et al. 2015. An Experimental Study of Low Liquid Loading in Inclined Pipes from 90° to 45°. Presented at SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1–5 March. SPE-173631-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173631-MS.
Hamersma, P. J. and Hart, J. 1987. A Pressure Drop Correlation for Gas/Liquid Pipe Flow with a Small Liquid Holdup. Chem. Eng. Sci. 42 (5): 1187–1196. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(87)80068-4.
Hart, J., Hamersma, P. J., and Fortuin, J. M. H. 1989. Correlations Predicting Frictional Pressure Drop Liquid Holdup during Horizontal Gas-Liquid Pipe Flow with a Small Liquid Holdup. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 15 (6): 947–964. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(89)90023-2.
Hauguel, R., Lajoie, A., Carimalo, F. et al. 2008. Water Accumulation Assessment in Wet Gas Pipelines. Presented at Corrosion 2008, New Orleans, 16–20 March. NACE-08138.
Karami, H. 2015. Low Liquid Loading Three-Phase Flow and Effects of MEG on Flow Behavior. PhD Dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa (December 2015).
Kim, H. J., Lee, S. C., and Bankoff, S. G. 1985. Heat Transfer and Interfacial Drag in Countercurrent Steam-Water Stratified Flow. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 11 (5): 593–606. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(85)90081-3.
Kowalski, J. E. 1987. Wall and Interfacial Shear Stress in Stratified in a Horizontal Pipe. AIChE J. 33 (2): 274–281. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690330214.
Lagad, V., Srinivasan, S., and Kane, R. 2004. Software System for Automating Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment of Pipelines. Presented at Corrosion 2004, New Orleans, 28 March–1 April. NACE-04197.
Langsholt, M. and Holm, H. 2007. Liquid Accumulation in Gas-Condensate Pipelines—An Experimental Study. Presented at the 13th International Conference on Multiphase Production Technology, Edinburgh, UK, 13–15 June. BHR-2007-A3.
Li, M., Li, S. L., and Sun, L. T. 2002. New View on Continuous-Removal Liquids from Gas Wells. SPE Prod & Fac 17 (1): 42–46. SPE-75455-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/75455-PA.
Luo, S., Kelkar, M., Pereyra, E. et al. 2014. A New Comprehensive Model for Predicting Liquid Loading in Gas Wells. SPE Prod & Oper 29 (4): 337–349. SPE-172501-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/172501-PA.
Magrini, K. L. 2009. Liquid Entrainment in Annular Gas-Liquid Flow. Master’s thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa.
Moalem Maron, D. and Dukler, A. E. 1984. Flooding and Upward Film Flow in Vertical Tubes. II: Speculations on Film Flow Mechanisms. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 10 (5): 599–621. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(84)90084-3.
Moghissi, O., Norris, L., Dusek, P. et al. 2002. Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment of Gas Transmission Pipelines. Presented at Corrosion 2002, Denver, 7–11 April. NACE-02087.
Moghissi, O., Sun, W., Mendez, C. et al. 2007. Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment Methodology for Liquid Petroleum Pipelines. Presented at Corrosion 2007, Nashville, Tennessee, 11–15 March. NACE-07169.
Nair, J. 2017. Gas Lift Application and Severe Slugging in Toe Down Horizontal Wells. PhD dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa (December 2017).
Nosseir, M. A., Darwich, T. A., Sayyouh, M. H. et al. 1997. Approach for Accurate Prediction of Loading in Gas Wells Under Different Flowing Conditions. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 9–11 March. SPE-37408-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/37408-MS.
Paleev, I. I. and Filippovich, B. S. 1966. Phenomena of Liquid Transfer in Two-Phase Dispersed Annular Flow. Int. J. Heat Mass Tran. 9 (10): 1089–1093. https://doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(66)90031-7.
Schlumberger. 2014. OLGA Transient Multiphase Flow Simulator, Version 7.3.5, User Manual. Houston: Schlumberger.
Schlumberger. 2015. What’s New in OLGA 2015. Schlumberger Software, https://www.software.slb.com/products/olga/olga-advanced-user-modules?tab=Library (accessed December 2015).
Taitel, Y. and Dukler, A. 1976. A Model for Predicting Flow Regime Transitions in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Gas-Liquid Flow. AIChE J. 22 (1): 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690220105.
Turner, R. G., Hubbard, M. G., and Dukler, A. E. 1969. Analysis and Prediction of Minimum Flow Rate for the Continuous Removal of Liquids from Gas Wells. SPE J. 21 (11): 1475–1482. SPE-2198-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2198-PA.
Vlachos, N. A., Paras, S. V., and Karabelas, A. J. 1997. Liquid-to-Wall Shear Stress Distribution in Stratified/Atomization Flow. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 23 (5): 845–863. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9322(97)00007-4.
Wallis, G. B. 1969. One-Dimensional Two-Phase Flow, first edition. Columbus, Ohio: McGraw-Hill.
Wang, Y. Z. and Liu, Q. W. 2007. A New Method to Calculate the Minimum Critical Liquid Carrying Flow Rate for Gas Wells. Petrol. Geol. Oilfield Dev. Daqing 6 (8): 82–5.
Whalley, P. B. and Hewitt, G. F. 1978. The Correlation of Liquid Entrainment Fraction and Entrainment Rate in Annular Two-Phase Flow. Report AERE-R-9187, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK.
Xiao, J. J., Shoham, O., and Brill, J. P. 1990. A Comprehensive Mechanistic Model for Two-Phase Flow in Pipelines. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 23–26 September. SPE-20631-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/20631-MS.
Zabaras, G., Dukler, A. E., and Moalem-Maron, D. 1986. Vertical Upward Cocurrent Gas-Liquid Annular Flow. AIChE J. 32 (5): 829–843. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690320513.
Zhang, H.-Q. and Sarica, C. 2011. A Model for Wetted-Wall Fraction and Gravity Center of Liquid Film in Gas/Liquid Pipe Flow. SPE J. 16 (3): 692–697. SPE-148330-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/148330-PA.
Zhang, H.-Q., Wang, Q., Sarica, C. et al. 2003. Unified Model for Gas-Liquid Pipe Flow via Slug Dynamics—Part 1: Model Development. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 125 (4): 266–273. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1615246.
Zhou, D. and Yuan, H. 2010. A New Model for Predicting Gas-Well Liquid Loading. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (2): 172–181. SPE-120580-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/120580-PA.