Comparison of Nanoparticle and Surfactant Oil/Water-Emulsion Separation Kinetics
- Ilias Gavrielatos (University of Tulsa) | Ramin Dabirian (University of Tulsa) | Ram Mohan (University of Tulsa) | Ovadia Shoham (University of Tulsa)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2,182 - 2,194
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- nanoparticles, surfactants, oil/water emulsions
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 191 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Experimental observations, during oil-production operations, regarding the formation of oil/water emulsions stabilized by nanoparticles and surfactants, are presented. Similarities and differences between the two types of emulsions are discussed on the basis of acquired separation profiles, as well as respective fluid interfacial properties. A state-of-the-art portable dispersion-characterization rig (PDCR) was used to run the experiments, and a surveillance camera was deployed to monitor the emulsion separation kinetics. Commercial-grade mineral oil and distilled water were used as the test fluids. Silica nanoparticles of different wettabilities, as well as surfactants with different hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values, were deployed to investigate commonalities/differences between the surfactant- and nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions under ambient-temperature and -pressure conditions.
Separation profiles were analyzed, and similar behaviors between the corresponding surfactant and nanoparticle emulsions were observed for the 25%-water-cut case. For higher water cuts, however, the surfactant-stabilized emulsions were tighter than their nanoparticle counterparts, displaying much lower separation rates. In the most severe cases, the surfactants totally inhibited the oil-creaming process and oil remained trapped in the emulsion for several hours. Multiple emulsions (O/W/O) were observed in certain cases [for hydrophilic nanoparticles and lipophilic surfactants (Span® 80)]. On the basis of the aforementioned experimental observations, the presence of surfactants caused more-severe problems for the oil/water-separation process than did the presence of an equal concentration of nanoparticles. Pendant-drop measurements indicated that the surfactants significantly lowered the interfacial tension (IFT) between the oil and water, whereas the nanoparticles did not.
Finally, a literature model was used to predict separation profiles for the oil/water dispersions and evaluated by comparing the predictions with the acquired experimental data. Current research sets the benchmark for more-thorough investigations aimed at providing guidelines for a more efficient operation of separators that handle surfactant- or nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions and a better understanding of the related phenomena.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Abend, S., Bonnke, N., Gutschner, U. et al. 1998. Stabilization of Emulsions by Heterocoagulation of Clay Minerals and Layered Double Hydroxides. Colloid Polym Sci 276 (8): 730–737. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003960050303.
Alabdulmohsen, Z. 2015. Experimental Study of Crude Oil Emulsion Stability by Surfactants and Nanoparticles. Master’s thesis; Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri (Spring 2015).
Andreas, J. M., Hauser, E. A., and Tucker, W. B. 1938. Boundary Tension by Pendant Drops. J Phys Chem 42 (8): 1001–1019. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100903a002.
Angardi, V. 2016. Effect of Aqueous Phase Composition and Surfactant on Oil-Water Dispersion Stability. MS thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
AEROSIL is a registered trademark of Evonik Industries or its subsidiaries.
Aveyard, R., Binks, B. P., and Clint, J. H. 2003. Emulsions Stabilized Solely by Colloidal Particles. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 100 (1): 503–546. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8686(02)00069-6.
Binks, B. P. and Lumsdon, S. O. 2000. Effect of Oil Type and Aqueous Phase Composition on Oil-Water Mixtures Containing Particles of Intermediate Hydrophobicity. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2: 2959–2967. https://doi.org/10.1039/B002582H.
Binks, B. P. and Horozov, T. S. 2005. Aqueous Foams Stabilized Solely by Silica Nanoparticles. Angew Chem Int Ed 44: 3722–3725. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200462470.
Binks, B. P., Liu, W., and Rodrigues, J. A. 2008. Novel Stabilization of Emulsions via the Heteroaggregation of Nanoparticles. Langmuir 24: 4443–4446. https://doi.org/10.1021/la800084d.
Braisch, B., Kohler, K., Schuchmann, H. P. et al. 2009. Preparation and Flow Behavior of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Hydrophilic Silica Particles. Chem Eng Technol 32 (7): 1107–1112. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.200900064.
Chen, X., Liu, K., He, P. et al. 2012. Preparation of Novel W/O Gel-Emulsions and Their Application in the Preparation of Low-Density Materials. Langmuir 28: 9275–9281. https://doi.org/10.1021/la300856h.
Dickinson, E. 2012. Use of Nanoparticles and Microparticles in the Formation and Stabilization of Food Emulsions. Trends Food Sci Technol 24: 4–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2011.09.006.
Drelich, J., Fang, C., and White, C. L. 2002. Measurement of Interfacial Tension in Fluid-Fluid Systems. In Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science, ed. A. T. Hubbard, 3152–3166. New York City: Marcek Dekker Inc.
El-Diasty, A. I. and Aly, A. M. 2015. Understanding the Mechanism of Nanoparticles Applications in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE North Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition, Cairo, 14–16 September. SPE-175806-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175806-MS.
Emrani, A. S. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2015. Stabilizing CO2-Foam Using Nanoparticles. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, Budapest, Hungary, 3–5 June. SPE-174254-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174254-MS.
Eskandar, N. G., Simovic, S., and Prestidge, C. A. 2007. Synergistic Effect of Silica Nanoparticles and Charged Surfactants in the Formation and Stability of Submicron Oil-in-Water Emulsions. Phys Chem Chem Phys 9: 6426–6434. https://doi.org/10.1039/b710256a.
Gavrielatos, I. 2016. Effect of Nanoparticles on Oil-Water Emulsion Stability. MS thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Gavrielatos, I., Mohan, R., and Shoham, O. 2017. Effect of Intermediate Wettability Nanoparticles on Oil-Water Emulsion Stability. J Pet Sci Eng 152: 664–674. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.12.040.
Gavrielatos, I., Dabirian, R., Mohan, R. S. et al. 2018a. Oil/Water Emulsions Stabilized by Nanoparticles of Different Wettabilities. J Fluid Eng Trans ASME 141 (2), 021301, 10 pages. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4040465.
Gavrielatos, I., Dabirian, R., Mohan, R. S. et al. 2018b. Nanoparticle and Surfactant Oil/Water Emulsions—Is Different Treatment Required? Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Garden Grove, California, 22–26 April. SPE-190114-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190114-MS.
Gelot, A., Friesen, W., and Hamza, H. A. 1984. Emulsification of Oil and Water in the Presence of Finely Divided Solids and Surface Active Agents. Colloids Surf A 12: 271–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-6622(84)80105-5.
Griffin, W. C. 1949. Classification of Surface Active Agents by HLB. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1: 311–326.
Hashimoto, M., Garstecki, P., Stone, H. A. 2008. Interfacial Instabilities in a Microfluidic Hele-Shaw Cell. Soft Matter 4: 1403–1413. https://doi.org/10.1039/b715867j.
ICI Americas, Inc. 1984. The HLB SYSTEM: A Time-Saving Guide to Emulsifier Selection, revised. Wilmington, Delaware: ICI Americas, Inc.
Jeelani, S. A. K. and Hartland, S. 1998. Effect of Dispersion Properties on the Separation of Batch Liquid-Liquid Dispersions. Ind Eng Chem Res 37 (2): 547–554. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie970545a.
Jeelani, S. A. K., Panoussopoulos, K., and Hartland, S. 1999. Effect of Turbulence on the Separation of Liquid-Liquid Dispersions in Batch Settlers of Different Geometries. Ind Eng Chem Res 38 (2): 493–501. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie980436b.
Kaminsky, R. D., Wattenbarger, R. C., Lederhos, J. P. et al. 2010. Viscous Oil Recovery Using Solids-Stabilized Emulsions. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-135284-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/135284-MS.
Katepalli, H. and Bose, A. 2014. Response of Surfactant Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions to the Addition of Particles in an Aqueous Suspension. Langmuir 30 (43): 12736–12742. https://doi.org/10.1021/la502291q.
Khajehpour, M., Etminan, S. R., Goldman, J. et al. 2016. Nanoparticles as Foam Stabilizer for Steam-Foam Process. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 21–23 March. SPE-179826-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179826-MS.
Kokal, S. 2005. Crude-Oil Emulsions: A State-of-the-Art Review. SPE Prod & Fac 20 (1): 5–13. SPE-77497-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/77497-PA.
Lacava, J., Ouali, A., Raillard, B. et al. 2014. On the Behavior of Nanoparticles in Oil-in-Water Emulsions With Different Surfactants. Soft Matter 10: 1696. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3sm52949e.
Mohd, T. A. T., Shukor, M. A. A., Ghazali, N. A. et al. 2014. Relationship Between Foamability and Nanoparticle Concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Appl Mech Mater 548–549: 67–71. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.548-549.67.
Nguyen, P., Fadael, H., and Sinton, D. 2014. Nanoparticle Stabilized CO2 in Water Foam for Mobility Control in Enhanced Oil Recovery via Microfluidic Method. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference–Canada, Calgary, 10–12 June. SPE-170167-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170167-MS.
Pei, H., Zhang, G., Ge, J. et al. 2015. Investigation of Synergy Between Nanoparticle and Surfactant in Stabilizing Oil-in-Water Emulsions for Improved Heavy Oil Recovery. Colloids Surf A 484: 478–484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2015.08.025.
Pickering, S. U. 1907. Emulsions. J Chem Soc 91: 2001–2021. https://doi.org/10.1039/CT9079102001.
Pilapil, B. K., Jahandideh, H., Bryant, S. L. et al. 2016. Stabilization of Oil-in-Water Emulsions With Noninterfacially Adsorbed Particles. Langmuir 32 (28): 7109–7116. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b00873.
Poindexter, M. K., Marble, R. A., Marsh, S. C. et al. 2005. Solid Content Dominates Emulsion Stability Predictions. Energy Fuel 19 (4): 1346–1352. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef049797w.
Poindexter, M. K., Marble, R. A., Marsh, S. C. et al. 2006. The Key to Predicting Emulsion Stability: Solid Content. SPE Prod & Oper 21 (3): 357–364. SPE-93008-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/93008-PA.
Roberts, M. R., Aminzadeh, B., DiCarlo, D.A. et al. 2012. Generation of Nanoparticle-Stabilized Emulsions in Fractures. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 14–18 April. SPE-154228-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154228-MS.
Rognmo, A. U., Al-Khayyat, N., Heldal, S. et al. 2018. Performance of Silica Nanoparticles in CO2-Foam for EOR and CCUS at Tough Reservoir Conditions. Presented at the SPE Norway One Day Seminar, Bergen, Norway, 18 April. SPE-191318-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/191318-MS.
Span is a registered trademark of Croda International PLC.
Stauffer, C. E. 1965. The Measurement of Surface Tension by the Pendant Drop Technique. J Phys Chem 69 (6): 1933–1938. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100890a024.
Sullivan, A. P. and Kilpatrick, P. K. 2002. The Effects of Inorganic Solid Particles on Water and Crude Oil Emulsion Stability. Ind Eng Chem Res 41 (14): 3389–3404. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie010927n.
Tambe, D. E. and Sharma, M. M. 1994. The Effect of Colloidal Particles on Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Properties and Emulsion Stability. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 52: 1–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8686(94)80039-1.
Tergitol is a trademark of Dow or an affiliated company of Dow.
Vashisth, C., Whitby, C. P., Fornasiero, D. et al. 2010. Interfacial Displacement of Nanoparticles by Surfactant Molecules in Emulsions. J Colloid Interface Sci 349 (2): 537–543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2010.05.089.
Xu, K., Zhu, P., Colon, T. et al. 2017. A Microfluidic Investigation of the Synergistic Effect of Nanoparticles and Surfactants in Macro-Emulsion-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery. SPE J. 22 (2): 459–469. SPE-179691-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/179691-PA.
Zhang, T., Davidson, A., Bryant, S. L. et al. 2010. Nanoparticle-Stabilized Emulsions for Applications in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129885-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129885-MS.
Zhou, H., Yao, Y., Chen, Q. et al. 2013. A Facile Microfluidic Strategy for Measuring Interfacial Tension. Appl Phys Lett 103: 234102. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4838616.