Well-Testing Challenges in Unconventional and Tight-Gas-Formation Reservoirs
- Mehdi Azari (Halliburton) | Farrukh Hamza (Halliburton) | Hamid Hadibeik (Halliburton) | Sandeep Ramakrishna (Halliburton)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- November 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,371 - 1,384
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- pressure transient analysis, well testing, diagnostic fracture injection test, tight gas reservoirs, formation testing
- 61 in the last 30 days
- 206 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Well-testing techniques provide valuable reservoir information, which is used to evaluate production potential and helps make development and completion decisions. Traditionally, newly drilled wells are tested using a drillstem test (DST) or wireline formation test (WFT). These methods are typically designed to flow the well under controlled conditions and then shut in the flow to achieve a pressure buildup (PBU).
In this paper, we present eight case studies to highlight well-testing challenges in tight-gas-formation wells in unconventional reservoirs. These challenges are accompanied by methods and solutions to adequately address them. During the first two cases, the duration of the PBU was not long enough to overcome high wellbore storage and reach radial flow. This was because of surface shut-in. A simulation is provided for Case 2 to highlight the importance of downhole shut-in. A hydraulically fractured, horizontal, tight-gas-formation well is presented in Case 3, where a 46-day-long PBU was conducted. However, owing to low permeability and high wellbore storage (WBS), this still resulted in a nonunique solution. The use of a wireline-conveyed formation tester to mitigate WBS effects is presented in Cases 4, 6, and 7. Case 5 is an example of a surface diagnostic fracture injection test (DFIT), with surface shut-in. In addition to the conventional PBU analysis, microfracturing and subsequent fluid sampling from tight formations have also been discussed. Finally, an injection/falloff (IFO) case is presented in a hydraulically fractured formation to discuss the challenges and solutions.
Because of controlled rates with an IFO test in low-permeability wells, faster flow stabilization can be achieved, resulting in shorter WBS durations. This technique can obtain well and reservoir information faster than a conventional PBU test. One issue with unconventional wells, particularly tight-gas-formation wells, is that the WBS lasts significantly longer than in standard wells. A downhole shut-in tool or any test that minimizes the WBS effects can greatly reduce the duration of such tests and help improve the quality of the analysis results. A discussion on formation compressibility has been provided to highlight the shortcomings of the traditional Hall’s correlation for application in unconventional formations. This paper discusses several well-testing applications with corresponding analyses pertaining to unconventional wells. The results provided valuable information to help optimize production and evaluate reservoir potential.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Aguilera, R. 2008. Effect of Fracture Compressibility on Gas-in-Place Calculations of Stress-Sensitive Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (2): 307–310. SPE-100451-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/100451-PA.
Ambrose, R. J., Hartman, R. C., Diaz-Campos, M. et al. 2012. Shale Gas-in-Place Calculations Part I: New Pore-Scale Considerations. SPE J. 17 (1): 219–229. SPE-131772-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/131772-PA.
Archie, G. E. 1952. Classification of Carbonate Reservoir Rocks and Petrophysical Considerations. AAPG Bull 36 (2): 218–298.
Azari, M., Burleson, J., Soliman, M. Y. et al. 1996. Testing and Evaluation of Tubing-Conveyed Extreme Overbalanced Perforating. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Columbus, Ohio, 23–25 October. SPE-37326-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/37326-MS.
Azari, M., Guoynes, J., Soliman, M. Y. et al. 1997. Deliverability Enhancement and Well Testing of Two Gas Storage Fields in Mt. Simon Formation—Case History. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky, 22–24 October. SPE-39208-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39208-MS.
Azari, M., Asadi, M., Schultz, R. et al. 1999. Finite Element and Neural Network Modeling of Extreme Overbalance Perforating. Presented at the SPE Mid-Continent Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 28–31 March. SPE-52167-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/52167-MS.
Azari, M., Khan, W., Jambunathan, V. et al. 2016. Dynamic Reservoir From Microbuildups With Formation Tester. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, UAE, 26–28 September. SPE-181638-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181638-MS.
Behar, F., Beaumont, V., and De Penteado, B. H. L. 2001. Rock-Eval 6 Technology Performances and Developments. Oil Gas Sci Technol 56: 111–134.
Borges, U. and Jamiolahmady, M. 2009. Well Test Analysis in Tight Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the Europec//EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 8–11 June. SPE-121113-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/121113-MS.
Brynes, A., Cluff, R. M., and Webb, J. C. et al. 2009. Analysis of Critical Permeability, Capillary Pressure, and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones From Western U.S. Basins. Technical Report, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (June 2009). https://doi.org/10.2172/971248.
Chaudhary, A. S. 2011. Shale Oil Production Performance From a Stimulated Reservoir Volume. MS thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (August 2011).
Clarkson, C. R., Jensen, J. L., and Blasingame, T. 2011. Reservoir Engineering for Unconventional Reservoirs: What Do We Have to Consider? Presented at the North American Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 14–16 June. SPE-145080-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/145080-MS.
Dahi Taleghani, A. and Olson, J. E. 2013. How Natural Fractures Could Affect Hydraulic-Fracture Geometry. SPE J. 19 (1): 161–171. SPE-167608-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167608-PA.
Dastan, A., Kamal, M. M., Hwang, Y. et al. 2018. Falloff Testing Under Multiphase Flow Conditions in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Orange County, California, 22–26 April. SPE-190141-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190141-MS.
Gale, J. F. W., Laubach, S. E., Olson, J. E. et al. 2014. Natural Fractures in Shale: A Review and New Observations. AAPG Bull 98 (11): 2165–2216. https://doi.org/10.1306/08121413151.
Garcia, J. P., Pooladi-Darvish, M., Brunner, F. et al. 2006. Well Testing of Tight Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 15–17 May. SPE-100576-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/100576-MS.
Gulen, G., Ikonnikova, S., Browning, J. et al. 2014. Fayetteville Shale-Production Outlook. SPE Econ & Mgmt 7 (2): 47–59. SPE-173187-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173187-PA.
Hackley, P. C. and Lewan, M. 2017. Understanding and Distinguishing Reflectance Measurements of Solid Bitumen and Vitrinite Using Hydrous Pyrolysis: Implications to Petroleum Assessment. AAPG Bull 102 (6): 1119–1140. https://doi.org10.1306/08291717097.
Hall, H. N. 1953. Compressibility of Reservoir Rocks. J Pet Technol 5 (1): 17–19. SPE-953309-G. https://doi.org10.2118/953309-G.
Hamdi, H., Jamiolahmady, M., and Corbett, P. W. M. 2013. Modeling the Interfering Effects of Gas Condensate and Geological Heterogeneities on Transient Pressure Response. SPE J. 18 (4): 656–669. SPE-143613-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/143613-PA.
Hamza, F., Gu, M., Quirein, J. et al. 2016. Improved Characterization of Anisotropic Elastic Moduli and Stress for Unconventional Reservoirs Using Laboratory Mineralogy, TOC, Static, and Dynamic Geomechanical Data. Presented at the SPWLA 57th Annual Logging Symposium, Reykjavik, Iceland, 25–29 June. SPWLA-2016-AA.
Hamza, F., Chen, C., Gu, M. et al. 2015. Characterization of Anisotropic Elastic Moduli and Stress for Unconventional Reservoirs Using Laboratory Static and Dynamic Geomechanical Data. Presented at the SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 20–22 October. SPE-175907-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175907-MS.
Hashmi, G. M., Kabir, C. S., and Hasan, A. R. 2014. Interpretation of Cleanup Data in Gas-Well Testing From Derived Rates. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 27–29 October. SPE-170603-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170603-MS.
Hashmi, G. M., Kabir, C. S., and Hasan, A. R. 2015a. Estimating Reliable Gas Rate With Transient-Temperature Modeling for Interpreting Early-Time Cleanup Data During Transient Testing. J Pet Sci Eng 133: 285–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.06.001.
Hashmi, G. M., Kabir, C. S., and Hasan, A. R. 2015b. Design and Interpretation of Transient Tests at Well’s Inception. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175007-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175007-MS.
Hashmi, G. M., Kabir, C. S., and Hasan, A. R. 2016. Design and Interpretation of Transient Tests at Well’s Inception. J Pet Sci Eng 145: 573–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.06.035.
Holditch, S. A. 2006. Tight Gas Sands. J Pet Technol 58 (6): 86–93. SPE-103356-JPT. https://doi.org/10.2118/103356-JPT.
Jahabani, A. and Aguilera, R. 2008. Well Testing of Tight Gas Reservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 48 (10): 64–70. SPE-130066-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/130066-PA.
Jarvie, D. M. 2012. Shale Resource Systems for Oil and Gas: Part 1—Shale-Gas Resource Systems. In Shale Reservoirs—Giant Resources for the 21st Century, ed. J. A. Breyer, AAPG Memoir 97, 69–87. Tulsa, Oklahoma: AAPG.
Javadpour, F., Fisher, D., and Unsworth, M. 2007. Nanoscale Gas Flow in Shale Gas Sediments. J Can Pet Technol 46 (10): 55–61. PETSOC-07-10-06. https://doi.org/10.2118/07-10-06.
Jin, M., Zhang, W., and Zhang, H. 2013. Integrated Well Test Strategy in Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs—Learning and Experiences From an Actual Field Project. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Beijing, 26–28 March. IPTC-16950-Abstract. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-16950-Abstract.
Kamal, M. M., Morsy, S., Suleen, F. et al. 2015. Determination of In Situ Reservoir Absolute Permeability Under Multiphase Flow Conditions Using Transient Well Testing. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175012-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175012-MS.
Kamal, M. M., Tian, C., and Suleen, F. 2016. Use of Transient Tests to Monitor Progress of Flooding in IOR/EOR Operations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, UAE, 26–28 September. SPE-181473-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181473-MS.
Khan, W. A., Hamza, S. M. F., and Ramakrishna, S. 2016. Acquiring Formation Fluid Samples Using Micro-Fracturing. International Patent Application No. PCT/US2016/044648.
Lan, Y., Moghanloo, R. G., and Davudov, D. 2017. Pore Compressibility of Shale Formations. SPE J. 22 (6): 1778–1789. SPE-185059-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/185059-PA.
Lee, W. J. 1987. Pressure-Transient Test Design in Tight Gas Formation. J Pet Technol 39 (10): 1185–1195. SPE-17088-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/17088-PA.
Martin, R., Cramer, D. D., Nunez, O. et al. 2012. A Method To Perform Multiple Diagnostic Fracture Injection Tests Simultaneously in a Single Wellbore. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6–8 February. SPE-152019-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/152019-MS.
Nguyen, D. H. and Cramer, D. D. 2013. Diagnostic Fracture Injection Testing Tactics in Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-163863-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/163863-MS.
Olorode, O. M., Akkutlu, I. Y., and Efendiev, Y. 2017. Compositional Reservoir-Flow Simulation for Organic-Rich Gas Shale. SPE J. 22 (6): 1963–1983. SPE-182667-PA. https://doi.org10.2118/182667-PA.
Pankaj, P. and Kumar, V. 2010. Well Testing in Tight Gas Reservoir: Today. Presented at the SPE Oil and Gas India Conference and Exhibition, Mumbai, India, 20–22 January. SPE-129032-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129032-MS.
Peters, K. E. and Cassa, M. R. 1994. Applied Source-Rock Geochemistry. In The Petroleum System. From Source to Trap, ed. L. B. Magoon and W. G. Dow, 93–120. Tulsa, Oklahoma: AAPG.
Potter, P. E., Maynard, J. B., and Depetris, P. J. 2005. Mud and Mudstones: Introduction and Overview. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Quintero, L., Azari, M., and Hamza, F. 2017. Dynamics of Multiphase Flow Regimes in Toe-Up and Toe-Down Horizontal Wells. Presented at the 23rd Formation Evaluation Symposium of Japan, Chiba, Japan, 11–12 October. SPWLA-JFES-2017-M.
Ramanathan, R., Shehata, A. M., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2015. Water-Alternating-CO2 Injection Process—Does Modifying the Salinity of Injected Brine Improve Oil Recovery? Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, 27–29 October. OTC-26253-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/26253-MS.
Ramanathan, R., Shehata, A. M., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2016. Effect of Rock Aging on Oil Recovery During Water-Alterating-CO2 Injection Process: An Interfacial Tension, Contact Angle, Coreflood, and CT Scan Study. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, 11–13 April. SPE-179674-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179674-MS.
Santacruz, C., Esquivel, R., Smith, J. et al. 2015. Integration of RTA Based Reservoir Surveillance and Analytical Flow Simulation To Forecast Production in the Haynesville Shale. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 20–22 July. URTEC-2153918-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2015-2153918.
Shahamat, M. S. and Aguilera, R. 2008. Pressure-Transient Test Design in Dual-Porosity Tight Gas Formations. Presented at the CIPC/SPE Gas Technology Symposium 2008 Joint Conference, Calgary, 16–19 June. SPE-115001-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/115001-MS.
Soliman, M. Y., Hunt, J. L., and Azari, M. 1996. Fracturing Horizontal Gas Wells. Presented at the SPE Mid-Continent Gas Symposium, Amarillo, Texas, 28–30 April. SPE-35260-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/35260-MS.
Soliman, M. Y. and Azari, M. 1998. Effect of Friction and Leak-Off on Fracture Parameters Calculated From Hydraulic Impedance Testing. Presented at the SPE India Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, New Delhi, India, 17–19 February. SPE-39529-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39529-MS.
Soliman, M. Y., Hunt, J. L., and Azari, M. 1999. Fracturing Horizontal Wells in Gas Reservoirs. SPE Prod & Fac 14 (4): 277–283. SPE-59096-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/59096-PA.
Soliman, M. Y., Azari, M., Ansah, J. et al. 2004. Design, Interpretation, and Assessment of Short-Term Pressure-Transient Tests. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-90837-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/90837-MS.
Soliman, M. Y., Craig, D. P., Bartko, K. M. et al. 2005. Post-Closure Analysis To Determine Formation Permeability, Reservoir Pressure, Residual Fracture Properties. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain, 12–15 March. SPE-93419-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/93419-MS.
Suleen, F., Oppert, S., Chambers, G. et al. 2017a. Application of Pressure Transient Analysis and 4D Seismic for Integrated Waterflood Surveillance—A Deepwater Case Study. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California,, 23–27 April. SPE-185646-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/185646-MS.
Suleen, F., Urbanczyk, C., Williams, G., et al. 2017b. Design and Interpretation of an Interference Test for Determination of Formation Compressibility in a Deepwater Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, USA, 23–27 April. SPE-185683-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/185683-MS.
Sun, H., Chawathe, A., Hoteit, H. et al. 2015. Understanding Shale Gas Flow Behavior Using Numerical Simulation. SPE J. 20 (1): 142–154. SPE-167753-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167753-PA.
Walton, I. and McLennan, J. 2013. The Role of Natural Fractures in Shale Gas Production. In Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, ed. A. P. Bunger, J. McLennan, and R. Jeffrey, Chapter 16. London: INTECH.
Wang, H. 2017. What Factors Control Shale-Gas Production and Production-Decline Trend in Fractured Systems: A Comprehensive Analysis and Investigation. SPE J. 22 (2): 562–581. SPE-179967-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/179967-PA.
Zhang, X., Du, C., Deimbacher, F. et al. 2009. Sensitivity Studies of Horizontal Wells With Hydraulic Fractures in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 7–9 December. IPTC-13338-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-13338-MS.