Influences of Proppant Concentration and Fracturing Fluids on Proppant-Embedment Behavior for Inhomogeneous Rock Medium: An Experimental and Numerical Study
- Yunlong Tang (Monash University) | Pathegama G. Ranjinth (Monash University) | M. Samintha A. Perera (Melbourne University) | Tharaka D. Rathnaweera (Monash University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 666 - 678
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- proppant embedment, fracturing fluids, proppant concentration
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 312 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Proppant plays a vital role in hydraulic fracturing in tight oil/gas production because it helps to keep the fractures open during the production process. However, it is common for proppant embedment, the main type of proppant degradation, to occur under high compression load, which greatly reduces the fracture conductivity, and consequently reduces the production rate. During the process of hydraulic fracturing, the fracturing fluid only has the chance to contact and infiltrate the fractures that are in the top surface of the rock medium because of ultralow rock permeability and the short time of fluid existence, whereas the condition of other parts of the rock remain unchanged, creating inhomogeneity within the rock medium. Therefore, the present study conducted a comprehensive experimental and numerical evaluation to investigate the behavior of proppant for inhomogeneous rock media, considering the factors (effective stress, proppant concentration, and fracturing fluid) that affect proppant performance. According to the experimental results, increasing the proppant concentration reduces the proppant embedment, and, interestingly, the optimal proppant concentration is approximately 150% coverage. Furthermore, the influence of fracturing fluid on proppant embedment is more significant for high proppant concentrations, and the embedment under water-saturated conditions is higher than that under oil-saturated conditions. The numerical simulation achieved the same result as the experimental study, showing that 150% proppant coverage is the optimal proppant concentration to achieve the minimum proppant embedment. In addition, numerical modeling indicated that the inhomogeneity of the rock formation can also considerably enhance proppant embedment through differential settlement during compression.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Abdullah, W., Buckley, J. S., Carnegie, A. et al. 2007. Fundamentals of Wettability. Oilfield Review 19 (2): 44–61.
Akrad, O. M., Miskimins, J. L., and Prasad, M. 2011. The Effects of Fracturing Fluids on Shale Rock Mechanical Properties and Proppant Embedment. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-146658-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/146658-MS.
Alramahi, B. and Sundberg, M. 2012. Proppant Embedment and Conductivity of Hydraulic Fractures in Shales. Paper presented at the 46th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Chicago, 24–27 June. ARMA-2012-291.
Anderson, R., Ratcliffe, I., Greenwell, H. et al. 2010. Clay Swelling—A Challenge in the Oilfield. Earth-Science Reviews 98 (3): 201–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.11.003.
Corapcioglu, H., Miskimins, J., and Prasad, M. 2014. Fracturing Fluid Effects on Young’s Modulus and Embedment in the Niobrara Formation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 27–29 October. SPE-170835-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170835-MS.
Cundall, P. A. and Strack, O. D. 1979. A Discrete Numerical Model for Granular Assemblies. Geotechnique 29 (1): 47–65. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.19188.8.131.52.
Cutler, R., Enniss, D., Jones, A. et al. 1985. Fracture Conductivity Comparison of Ceramic Proppants. SPE J. 25 (2): 157–170. SPE-11634-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/11634-PA.
Da Silva, M. R., Schroeder, C., and Verbrugge, J.-C. 2008. Unsaturated Rock Mechanics Applied to a Low-Porosity Shale. Engineering Geology 97 (1): 42–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.12.003.
Dontsov, E. and Peirce, A. 2015. Proppant Transport in Hydraulic Fracturing: Crack Tip Screen-Out in KGD and P3D Models. International Journal of Solids and Structures 63: 206–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2015.02.051.
Duenckel, R. J., Conway, M. W., Eldred, B. et al. 2011. Proppant Diagenesis-Integrated Analyses Provide New Insights Into Origin, Occurrence, and Implications for Proppant Performance. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic-Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 24–26 January. SPE-139875-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/139875-MS.
Dyke, C. and Dobereiner, L. 1991. Evaluating the Strength and Deformability of Sandstones. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 24 (1): 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.QJEG.1991.024.01.13.
Gaurav, A., Dao, E. K., and Mohanty, K. K. 2010. Ultra-Lightweight Proppants for Shale Gas Fracturing. Presented at the Tight Gas Completions Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 2–3 November. SPE-138319-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/138319-MS.
Ghosh, S., Rai, C. S., Sondergeld, C. H. et al. 2014. Experimental Investigation of Proppant Diagenesis. Presented at the SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference–Canada, Calgary, 30 September–2 October. SPE-171604-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171604-MS.
Guo, J. and Liu, Y. 2012. Modeling of Proppant Embedment: Elastic Deformation and Creep Deformation. Presented at the SPE International Production and Operations Conference and Exhibition, Doha, Qatar, 14–16 May. SPE-157449-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/157449-MS.
Hu, Y. T., Chung, H., and Maxey, J. E. 2015. What Is More Important for Proppant Transport, Viscosity or Elasticity? Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 3–5 February. SPE-173339-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173339-MS.
Hudson, P. and Matson, R. 1992. Hydraulic Fracturing in Horizontal Wellbores. Presented at the Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, Texas, 18–20 March. SPE-23950-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/23950-MS.
Jabbari, H. and Zeng, Z. 2012. Hydraulic-Fracturing Design for Horizontal Wells in the Bakken Formation. Presented at the 46th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Chicago, 24–27 June. ARMA-2012-128.
Lacy, L. L., Rickards, A. R., and Ali, S. A. 1997. Embedment and Fracture Conductivity in Soft Formations Associated With HEC, Borate, and Water-Based Fracture Designs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 5–8 October. SPE-38590-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/38590-MS.
Lacy, L., Rickards, A., and Bilden, D. 1998. Fracture Width and Embedment Testing in Soft Reservoir Sandstone. SPE Drill & Compl 13 (1): 25–29. SPE-36421-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/36421-PA.
Lazzari, E. 2013. Analysis of Shear Strength of Rock Joints With PFC2D. MS thesis, Division of Soil and Rock Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
Lin, M.-L., Jeng, F., Tsai, L. et al. 2005. Wetting Weakening of Tertiary Sandstones—Microscopic Mechanism. Environmental Geology 48 (2): 265–275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-005-1318-y.
Liu, S., Liu, H., Wang, S. et al. 2008. Direct Shear Tests and PFC2D Numerical Simulation of Intermittent Joints. Chin. J. Rock Mech. Eng. 27 (9): 1828–1836.
Lowe, D. and Huitt, J. 1966. Propping Agent Transport in Horizontal Fractures. J Pet Technol 18 (6): 753–764. SPE-1285-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1285-PA.
Montgomery, C. and Steanson, R. 1985. Proppant Selection: The Key to Successful Fracture Stimulation. J Pet Technol 37 (12): 2, 163–162, 172. SPE-12616-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/12616-PA.
Montgomery, C. 2013. Fracturing Fluids. Presented at the ISRM International Conference for Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, Brisbane, Australia, 20–22 May. ISRM-ICHF-2013-035.
Novotny, E. 1977. Proppant Transport. Presented at the SPE Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 9–12 October. SPE-6813-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/6813-MS.
Patel, P., Robart, C., Ruegamer, M. et al. 2014. Analysis of US Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid System and Proppant Trends. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-168645-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168645-MS.
Raysoni, N. and Weaver, J. D. 2012 Long-Term Proppant Performance. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Fayette, Louisiana, USA, 15–17 February. SPE-150669-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/150669-MS.
Rehbinder, P. 1933. Zur Physikochemie der Benetzungserscheinungen und Flotationsprozesse, Teil IX. Colloid & Polymer Science 65 (3): 268–283.
Rickards, A. R., Brannon, H. D., and Wood, W. D. 2006. High-Strength, Ultralightweight Proppant Lends New Dimensions to Hydraulic-Fracturing Applications. SPE Prod & Oper 21 (2): 212–221. SPE-84308-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/84308-PA.
Schein, G. W., Carr, P. D., Canan, P. A. et al. 2004. Ultralightweight Proppants: Their Use and Application in the Barnett Shale. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-90838-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/90838-MS.
Taylor, P., Larter, S., Jones, M. et al. 1997. The Effect Oil-Water-Rock Partitioning on the Occurrence of Alkylphenols in Petroleum Systems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 (9): 1899–1910. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(97)00034-3.
Terracina, J. M., Turner, J. M., Collins, D. H. et al. 2010. Proppant Selection and Its Effect on the Results of Fracturing Treatments Performed in Shale Formations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-135502-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/135502-MS.
Tsunoda, T. and Sasaki, T. 1963. The Wetting of Paraffin by Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Decyl, Dodecyl, and Tetradecyl Sulfates. Bull. of the Chemical Society of Japan 36 (4): 450–455. https://doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.36.450.
Volk, L. J., Raible, C. J., Carroll, H. B. et al. 1981. Embedment of High-Strength Proppant Into Low-Permeability Reservoir Rock. Presented at the SPE/DOE Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, 27–29 May. SPE-9867-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/9867-MS.
Wang, Z., Jacobs, F., and Ziegler, M. 2014. Visualization of Load Transfer Behaviour Between Geogrid and Sand Using PFC 2D. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 42 (2): 83–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2014.01.001.
Weaver, J. D., Parker, M., van Batenburg, D. W. et al. 2007. Fracture-Related Diagenesis May Impact Conductivity. SPE J. 12 (3): 272–281. SPE-98236-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/98236-PA.
Wen, Q., Zhang, S., Wang, L. et al. 2007. The Effect of Proppant Embedment Upon the Long-Term Conductivity of Fractures. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 55 (3): 221–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.08.010.
Williams, B. and Nierode, D. 1972. Design of Acid Fracturing Treatments. J Pet Technol 24 (7): 849–859. SPE-3720-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3720-PA.
Woodworth, T. R. and Miskimins, J. L. 2007. Extrapolation of Laboratory Proppant Placement Behavior to the Field in Slickwater Fracturing Applications. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, College Station, Texas, 29–31 January. SPE-106089-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106089-MS.
Xu, W.-j., Hu, R.-l., and Wang, Y.-p. 2007. PFC_(2D) Model for Mesostructure of Inhomogeneous Geomaterial Based on Digital Image Processing. Journal of China Coal Society 4: 004.
Yong, C., Wu, O., Bridle, M. K. et al. 2012. Reinjecting Produced Water Into Tight Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 30 October–1 November. SPE-162863-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/162863-MS.
Yu, W. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2013. Simulation of Proppant Distribution Effect on Well Performance in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference Canada, Calgary, 5–7 November. SPE-167225-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167225-MS.
Zhang, J. 2005. The Impact of Shale Properties on Wellbore Stability. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin (August 2005).
Zhang, J., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. D. 2015. Water-Induced Fracture Conductivity Damage in Shale Formations. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 3–5 February. SPE-173346-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173346-MS.