Mud/Cement Displacement in Vertical Eccentric Annuli
- Hanieh K. Foroushan (University of Tulsa) | Evren M. Ozbayoglu (University of Tulsa) | Paulo J. Gomes (BP) | Mengjiao Yu (University of Tulsa)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- June 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 297 - 316
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- cement contamination, interface instability and intermixing, fluid displacement, flow of non-Newtonian fluids in eccentric annuli
- 35 in the last 30 days
- 107 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
A successful cement placement can provide zonal isolation and environmental safety. Effective design of cement placement and mud removal affects all the stages of the wellbore life, from drilling ahead to production. Accurate predictions of fluid displacement in the wellbore are vital to design fluid properties and plan the cementing job. In this work, an analytical model is developed to simulate the displacement of fluids in eccentric annuli.
This paper presents an analytical method for the solution of cement/mud displacement and evaluation of interfluid contamination during displacement in vertical eccentric annuli. This new approach starts by addressing the problem of single-fluid flow in eccentric annuli by analytically solving the governing transport equations for a flow inside an unwrapped annulus. The solution is then extended to a system of two fluids in a vertical annulus by adjusting the boundary conditions for displacement. The model is completed by adding the time-dependent calculation of interface between the two fluids, enabling the accurate determination of the amount of interfluid mixing and displacement efficiency.
The analytical method proposed is used to simulate single- and multifluid flows and study the effect of fluid properties of cement, spacer, and drilling mud at different flow rates on displacement efficiency for both concentric and eccentric vertical annuli. Noting that the drilling fluids are non-Newtonian, the concept of apparent viscosity is used, accounting for variable apparent viscosity at different annular gaps. 3D computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed and the results were compared with the analytical solution. Moreover, instability of the interface in all cases was studied, and the analysis offers an understanding of the role of fluid properties and proposes applicable optimized design to enhance the displacements. The amount of interfluid mixing and contamination that occurs during the displacement was calculated for both methods. The analytical solution and CFD produce results within a 13% difference, which sufficiently validates the analytical model. Evidence was gathered to support that the improper design of fluid properties and flow rate along with a highly eccentric annulus can lead to substantial cement contamination. This can lead to underdesigning the amount of fluids to be pumped to provide a complete mud removal and an efficient cement placement. On the other hand, learnings and models developed allow the optimization of fluid properties that can lead to the best outcomes, even for a highly eccentric annulus.
The present work aims to take part in addressing the undeniable importance of a complete cement displacement by means of a semianalytical solution for the fluid displacement coupled with the interface-instability analysis, attempting to provide a realistic prediction of the amount of interfluid mixing and cement contamination, along with qualitative judgements on the quality of the cementing job. This methodology is intended to offer improvement techniques for the displacement and provide enhancements for practical industrial applications.
|File Size||11 MB||Number of Pages||20|
Bittleston, S. H., Ferguson, J., and Frigaard, I. A. 2002. Mud Removal and Cement Placement During Primary Cementing of an Oil Well–Laminar Non-Newtonian Displacements in an Eccentric Annular Hele-Shaw Cell. J Eng Math 43 (2–4): 229–253. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020370417367.
Chandrasekhar, S. 1961. Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, first edition. Oxford, UK: International Series of Monographs on Physics, Clarendon.
Chen, Z., Chaudhary, S., and Shine, J. 2014. Intermixing of Cementing Fluids: Understanding Mud Displacement and Cement Placement. Paper presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Fort Worth, Texas, USA, 4–6 March. SPE-167922-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167922-MS.
Escudier, M. P., Oliveira, P. J., and Pinho, F. T. 2002. Fully Developed Laminar Flow of Purely Viscous Non-Newtonian Liquids Through Annuli, Including the Effects of Eccentricity and Inner-Cylinder Rotation. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 23 (1): 52–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-727X(01)00135-7.
Foroushan, H. K., Ozbayoglu, E. M., Miska, S. Z. et al. 2018. On the Instability of the Cement/Fluid Interface and Fluid Mixing (includes associated erratum). SPE Drill & Compl 33 (1): 63–76. SPE-180322-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/180322-PA.
Haciislamoglu, M. 1989. Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Eccentric Annuli and Its Application to Petroleum Engineering Problems. PhD dissertation, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA (December 1989).
Haciislamoglu, M. and Langlinais, J. 1990. Non-Newtonian Flow in Eccentric Annuli. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 112 (3): 163–169. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2905753.
Heyda, J. F. 1959. A Green’s Function Solution for the Case of Laminar Incompressible Flow Between Non-Concentric Circular Cylinders. J Franklin Inst 267.1 (1): 25–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-0032(59)90034-1.
Iyoho, A. W. and Azar, J. J. 1981. An Accurate Slot-Flow Model for Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Through Eccentric Annuli. SPE J. 21 (5): 565–572. SPE-9447-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/9447-PA.
Pelipenko, S. and Frigaard, I. A. 2004a. Two-Dimensional Computational Simulation of Eccentric Annular Cementing Displacements. IMA J Appl Math 69 (6): 557–583. https://doi.org/10.1093/imamat/69.6.557.
Pelipenko, S. and Frigaard, I. A. 2004b. Mud Removal and Cement Placement During Primary Cementing of an Oil Well—Part 2; Steady-State Displacements. J Eng Math 48 (1): 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:ENGI.0000009499.63859.f0.
Rovinsky, J., Brauner, N., and Moalem Maron, D. 1997. Analytical Solution for Laminar Two-Phase Flow in a Fully Eccentric Core-Annular Configuration. Int. J. Multiph. Flow 23 (3): 523–543. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9322(96)00081-X.
Savery, M., Darbe, R., and Chin, W. 2007. Modeling Fluid Interfaces During Cementing Using a 3D Mud Displacement Simulator. Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 30 April–3 May. OTC-18513-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/18513-MS.
Szabo, P. and Hassager, O. 1997. Displacement of One Newtonian Fluid by Another: Density Effects in Axial Annular Flow. Int. J. Multiph. Flow 23 (1): 113–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9322(96)00062-6.
Tao, L. N. and Donovan, W. F. 1955. Through-Flow in Concentric and Eccentric Annuli of Fine Clearance with and without Relative Motion of the Boundaries. Trans, ASME 77: 1291–1301.
Tehrani, A., Ferguson, J., and Bittleston, S. H. 1992. Laminar Displacement in Annuli: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, USA, 4–7 October. SPE-24569-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/24569-MS.
Tardy, P. M. J. and Bittleston, S. H. 2015. A Model for Annular Displacements of Wellbore Completion Fluids Involving Casing Movement. J Pet Sci Eng 126 (February): 105–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.12.018.
Tardy, P. M. 2018. A 3D Model for Annular Displacements of Wellbore Completion Fluids with Casing Movement. J Pet Sci Eng 162 (March): 114–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2017.11.071.
Uner, D., Ozgen, C., and Tosum, I. 1989. Flow of a Power-Law Fluid in an Eccentric Annulus (includes associated paper 20171). SPE Drill Eng 4 (3): 269–272. SPE-17002-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/17002-PA.