An Integrated Modeling Work Flow With Hydraulic Fracturing, Reservoir Simulation, and Uncertainty Analysis for Unconventional-Reservoir Development
- Baosheng Liang (Chevron North America Exploration and Production) | Shahzad A Khan (Chevron North America Exploration and Production) | Sinchia Dewi Puspita (Chevron North America Exploration and Production)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 462 - 475
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Reservoir Modeling, Top-Down Concept, Uncertainty Analysis, Unconventional Reservoir, Integrated Workflow
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 568 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
It is important to determine several key parameters, such as well spacing, completions design, landing strategy, and pad sequence, for a successful full-field development of the unconventional reservoir that involves multiple wells and pads in a given area of interest. Those parameters are normally considered individually through small and simple models. In this paper, focusing on developing the whole area effectively, we provided a systematic work flow to handle such challenges together: We first recommended a top-down concept that better represents actual field development and illustrates the importance of the 3D Earth model for the unconventional reservoir; we then proposed an integrated modeling that is an iterative loop consisting of the 3D Earth model, hydraulic-fracture modeling, reservoir simulation, and uncertainty analysis.
It is uncommon to build a 3D Earth model for the unconventional reservoir mainly because of the lack of data and software capability. In this paper, we provided a cost-effective approach for the first time on the basis of a large amount of existing vertical wells, newly drilled horizontal wells, and all the data available. A 3D Earth model using information from approximately 1,100 vertical wells from the Midland Basin was presented. Such a model has a high resolution conditioned by high well density, and has an advantage of capturing hetrogeneities and interactions more than a simplified model created either from one well or low-resolution seismic interpretation. The model was fed into hydraulic-fracture modeling with the consideration of natural-fracture network and stress shadow, followed by reservoir simulation. The in-house uncertainty-analysis package that functions by experimental-design philosophy is linked to the Earth model, hydraulic-fracture modeling, and reservoir simulation. For the first time, the impacts of all the parameters together were evaluated through the final production performance. In our example, we considered completions design, discrete-fracture-network (DFN) characterization and generation, unpropped hydraulic-fracture properties, fracture compaction, and matrix permeability. The result indicated that DFN characterization is the most important parameter affecting production performance.
We applied our model and work flow to field development. Well spacing and pad sequence were studied in this paper as two examples. We demonstrated that it is important to properly consider complex interactions among multiple clusters, stages, and wells to evaluate the impacts on well spacing, completions, and development sequence.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Bai, T., Will, J., Eckardt, S. et al. 2016. Hydraulic Fracture Modeling Workflow and Toolkits for Well-Completion Optimization in Unconventionals. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 9–11 February. SPE-179137-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179137-MS.
Bhattacharya, S. and Nikolaou, M. 2016. Comprehensive Optimization Methodology for Stimulation Design of Low-Permeability Unconventional Gas Reservoirs. SPE J. 21 (3): 947–964. SPE-147622-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/147622-PA.
Cipolla, C. L., Fitzpatrick, T., Williams, M. J. et al, 2011. Seismic-to-Simulation for Unconventional Reservoir Development. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, 9–11 October. SPE-146876-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/146876-MS.
Cohen, C.-E., Kamat, S., Itibrout, T. et al. 2014. A Parametric Study on Completion Design in Shale Reservoirs Based on Fracturing-to-Production Simulations. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 19–22 January. IPTC-17462-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17462-MS.
EIA Drilling and Productivity Report, April 2016: https://www.eia.gov/petroleum/drilling/#tabs-summary-2.
Lalehrokh, F. and Bouma, J. 2014. Well Spacing Optimization in Eagle Ford. Presented at the SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference–Canada, Calgary, 30 September–2 October. SPE-171640-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171640-MS.
Li, B. 2014. Natural Fractures in Unconventional Shale Reservoirs in US and Their Roles in Well Completion Design and Improving Hydraulic Fracturing Simulation Efficiency and Production. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 27–29 October. SPE-170934-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170934-MS.
McClure, M .W. 2013. Understanding, Diagnosing, and Modeling the Causes of Fracture Network Complexity in Unconventional Reservoirs. The Leading Edge 32 (12): 1494–1500. https://doi.org/10.1190/tle32121494.1.
O’Reilly, D. I., Lightfoot, T. J., Das, S. et al. 2014. Applications and Lessons Learned During Integrated Subsurface Experimental Design Studies of a Giant NW Australia Gas Field. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Adelaide, Australia, 14–16 October. SPE-171526-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171526-MS.
Pierce, J. and Parker, J. 2015. Identifying Landing Zones Utilizing High-Resolution X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Chemostratigraphy. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 20–22 July. URTEC-2154543-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2015-2154543-MS.
Shakiba, M. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2015. Using Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) and Microseismic Monitoring Data to Characterize Complex Hydraulic Fracture Networks. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, USA, 28–30 September. SPE-175142-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175142-MS.
Sun, J. and Schechter, D. 2015. Investigating the Effect of Improved Fracture Conductivity on Production Performance of Hydraulically Fractured Wells: Field-Case Studies and Numerical Simulations. J Can Pet Technol 54 (6): 442–449. SPE-169866-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/169866PA.
Weng, X., Kresse, O., Cohen, C. E. et al. 2011. Modeling of Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24–26 January. SPE-140253-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/140253-MS.
Wu, R., Kresse, O., Weng, X. et al. 2012. Modeling of Interaction of Hydraulic Fractures in Complex Fracture Networks. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 6–8 February. SPE-152052-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/152052-MS.
Wu, K. and Olson, J. E. 2016. Numerical Investigation of Complex Hydraulic-Fracture Development in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Prod & Oper 31 (4): 300–309. SPE-173326-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173326-PA.
Yu, W. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2014. An Efficient Reservoir-Simulation Approach to Design and Optimize Unconventional Gas Production. J Can Pet Technol 53 (2): 109–121. SPE-165343-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/165343-PA.
Yu, W., Wu, K., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2015. An Integrated Approach to Optimize Production in Marcellus Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, USA, 28–30 September. SPE-175109-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175109-MS.