Decoupling of Channeling and Dispersion Effects by Use of Multiwell Tracer Test
- Tong Shen (University of Oklahoma) | Rouzbeh Ghanbarnezhad Moghanloo (University of Oklahoma) | Wei Tian (University of Oklahoma)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 54 - 72
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Sweep efficiency, Tracers, Heterogeneity, Dispersivity
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 199 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
This paper examines the decoupling of small-scale heterogeneity (dispersion) and permeability variation by use of multiwell tracer-test data. Tracer transport in heterogeneous reservoirs is governed by spreading (because of the spatial variability of permeability) and mixing(caused by dispersion); the combined effects of these two phenomena can be described after very long time periods (rarely met inpractice) by the Taylor (1953) theory of asymptotic dispersion.
A new formulation is presented to study tracer propagation along streamlines in heterogeneous reservoirs. The streamlines are modeled as analogous reservoir layers with no crossflow. The fraction of layers in which tracer transport occurs faster than the solution of the convection/diffusion equation (CDE) is determined; this fraction represents layers through which channeling may take place: obviously, the larger the fraction, the lower the sweep efficiency. Moreover, a field example is used to demonstrate how to decouple the convoluted effects of the channeling from small-scale heterogeneity.
An accurate estimation of “true” dispersion is an essential step in designing a successful enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Furthermore, the sweep efficiency of heterogeneous reservoir can be estimated through interwell-spacing heterogeneity; this improves performance predictions and the economic evaluation of the project.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Adedayo, S. O. 2004. A Composite Tracer Analysis Approach to Reservoir Characterization. MS thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (2004).
Allison, S. B., Pope, G. A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1991. Analysis of Field Tracers for Reservoir Description. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 5 (2): 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(91)90066-V.
Barnes, E. W. 1908. A New Development of the Theory of the Hypergeometric Functions. Proc., London Math. Soc. 2–6 (1): 141–177. https://doi.org/10.1112/plms/s2-6.1.141.
Bolster, D., Valdes-Parada, F. J., Le Borgne, T. et al. 2011. Mixing in Confined Stratified Aquifers. J. Contam. Hydrol. 120–121: 198–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.02.003.
Buckley, S. E. and Leverett, M. C. 1942. Mechanism of Fluid Displacement in Sands. In Transactions of the AIME, Vol. 146, No. 1, 107–116. SPE-942107-G. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/942107-G.
Castiglione, P., Mazzino, A., Muratore-Ginanneschi, P. et al. 1999. On Strong Anomalous Diffusion. Physica. D. 134 (1): 75–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2789(99)00031-7.
Coats, K. H., Whitson, C. H., and Thomas, L. K. 2009. Modeling Conformance as Dispersion. SPE Res & Eval Eng 12 (1): 33–47. SPE 90390-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/90390-PA.
Coronado, M., Ramirez-Sabag, J., Valdiviezo-Mijangos et al. 2009. A Test of the Effect of Boundary Conditions on the Use of Tracers in Reservoir Characterization. Geofi´sica Internacional 48 (2): 185–193.
Dagan, G. 1982. Stochastic Modeling of Groundwater Flow by Unconditional and Conditional Probabilities: 2. The Solute Transport. Water Resour. Res. 18 (4): 835–848. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR018i004p00835.
Dagan, G. 1989. Flow and Transport in Porous Formations. Springer-Verlag.
Dagan, G. and Sposito, G. 1994. Predicting Solute Plume Evolution in Heterogeneous Porous Formations. Water Resour. Res. 30 (2): 585–589. https://doi.org/10.1029/93WR02947.
Dentz, M. and Carrera, J. 2007. Mixing and Spreading in Stratified Flow. Phys. Fluids 19: 017107. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2427089.
Dykstra, H. and Parsons, R. L. 1950. The Prediction of Oil Recovery by Waterflooding. In Secondary Recovery of Oil in the United States, second edition, 160-174. Washington, DC: API.
Fiori, A. and Dagan, G. 2002. Transport of a Passive Scalar in a Stratified Porous Medium. Transp. Porous Media 47 (1): 81–98.
Garmeh, G. and Johns, R. T. 2010. Upscaling of Miscible Floods in Heterogeneous Reservoirs Considering Reservoir Mixing. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (5): 747–763. SPE-124000-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/124000-PA.
Gelhar, L. J., Gutjahr, A. L., and Naff, R. L. 1979. Stochastic Analysis of Macrodispersion in a Stratified Aquifer. Water Resour. Res. 15 (6): 1387–1397. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR015i006p01387.
Gelhar, L. W. and Axness, C. L. 1983. Three-Dimensional Stochastic Analysis of Macro-Dispersion in Aquifers. Water Resour. Res. 19 (1): 161–180. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR019i001p00161.
Ghanbarnezhad Moghanloo, R. 2011. Numerical Dispersion Impact on Local Mixing in Heterogeneous Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 17–19 August. SPE-149420-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/149420-MS.
Ghanbarnezhad Moghanloo, R. and Lake, L. W. 2011. A Regime Indicator for Flow-Through Heterogeneous Permeable Media. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-146370-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/146370-MS.
Ghanbarnezhad Moghanloo, R. 2012a. Modeling the Fluid Flow of Carbon Dioxide Through Permeable Media. PhD dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, Texas (May 2012).
Ghanbarnezhad Moghanloo, R. 2012b. A New Formulation for Decoupling of Large and Small Scale Heterogeneities in Multi-Layered Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, USA, 14–18 April. SPE-154113-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154113-MS.
Ghanbarnezhad Moghanloo, R. and Lake, L. 2012. Applying Fractional-Flow Theory Under the Loss of Miscibility. SPE J. 17 (3): 661–670. SPE-129966-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/129966-PA.
Greenkorn, A. R. 1983. Flow Phenomena in Porous Media. New York City: Marcel Decker, Inc.
Illiasov, P. 2000. Inversion of Field-Scale Partitioning Tracer Response for Characterizing Oil Saturation Distribution: A Streamline Approach. MS thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.
Jennings, J. W., Ruppel, S. C., and Ward, W. B. 2000. Geostatistical Analysis of Permeability Data and Modeling of Fluid-Flow Effects in Carbonate Outcrops. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (4): 292–303. SPE-65370-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/65370-PA.
John, A. K. 2008. Dispersion in Large-Scale Permeable Media. PhD dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, Texas.
Kitanidis, P. K. 1994. The Concept of the Dilution Index. Water Resour. Res. 30 (7): 2011–2026. https://doi.org/10.1029/94WR00762.
Koval, J. 1963. A Method for Predicting the Performance of Unstable Miscible Displacement in Heterogeneous Media. SPE J. 3 (02): 145–154. https://doi.org/10.2118/450-PA.
Lake, L.W. and Hirasaki, G. J. 1981. Taylor’s Dispersion in Stratified PorousMedia. SPE J. 21 (4): 459–468. SPE-8436-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/8436-PA.
Lake, L. W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Lichtenberger, J. 1991. Field Applications of Interwell Tracers for Reservoir Characterization of Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilot Areas. Presented at the 1991 SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 7–9 April. SPE-21652-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/21652-MS.
Mahadevan, J., Lake, L. W., and Johns, R. T. 2003. Estimation of True Dispersivity in Field-Scale Permeable Media. SPE J. 8 (3): 272–279. SPE-86303-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/86303-PA.
Matheron, G. and De Marsily, G. 1980. Is Transport in Porous Media Always Diffusive? A Counterexample. Water Resour. Res. 16 (5): 901–917. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR016i005p00901.
Neuman, S. P. and Tartakovsky, D. M. 2009. Perspective on Theories of Non-Fickian Transport in Heterogeneous Media. Adv. Water Resour. 32 (5): 670–680. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.08.005.
Ogata, A., and Banks, R.B. 1961. A Solution of the Differential Equation of Longitudinal Dispersion in Porous Media: Fluid Movement in Earth Materials. Washington: US Government Printing Office.
Remy, N. 2005. S-GeMS: the Stanford Geostatistical Modeling Software: A Tool for New Algorithms Development. In Geostatistics Banff 2004, pp. 865–871. Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-3610-1_89.
Schulze-Makuch, D. 2005. Longitudinal Dispersivity Data and Implications for Scaling Behavior. Ground Water 43: 443–456. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2005.0051.
Su, N., Sander, G. C., Liu, F. et al. 2005. Similarity Solutions for Solute Transport in Fractal Porous Media Using a Time and Scale Dependent Dispersivity. Applied Mathematical Modeling 29 (9): 852–870. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2004.11.006.
Taylor, G. I. 1953. Dispersion of Soluble Matter in Solvent Flowing Slowly Through a Tube. Proc., Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences 219 (1137): 186–203. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1953.0139.
Thiele, M. R., Batycky, R. P., and Fenwick, D. H. 2010. Streamline Simulation for Modern Reservoir-Engineering Workflows. J Pet Technol 62 (1): 64–70. SPE-118608-JPT. https://doi.org/10.2118/118608-JPT.
Vanderborght, J. and Vereecken, H. 2007. Review of Dispersivities for Transport Modeling in Soils. Vadose Zone Journal 6 (1): 29–52. https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2006.0096.
Zavala-Sanchez, V., Dentz, M., and Sanchez-Vila, X. 2009. Characterization of Mixing and Spreading in a Bounded Stratified Medium. Adv. Water Resour. 32 (5): 635–648. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.05.003.
Zhou, Q., Liu, H. H., Molz, F. J. et al. 2007. Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for Fractured Rock: Results From Literature Survey. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 93 (1–4): 161–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2007.02.002.