Effect of Dilute Acid on Hydraulic Fracturing of Carbonate-Rich Shales: Experimental Study
- Tadesse Weldu Teklu (Colorado School of Mines) | Daejin Park (Korea Gas Corporation and Colorado School of Mines) | Hoiseok Jung (Korea Gas Corporation and Colorado School of Mines) | Kaveh Amini (Colorado School of Mines) | Hazim Abass (Halliburton and Colorado School of Mines)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 170 - 184
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Dilute Acid, Slickwater or Brine Imbibition / soaking, Stress dependent permeability or fracture width and their hysteresis, Fracture roughness, rock softening/weakening and proppant embedment, Horn River Basin,British Columbia, Canada, Hydronic fracturing, Matrix and Fracture Permeability, Stimulated Reservoir Volume
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Matrix and fracture permeability of carbonate-rich tight cores from Horn River Basin, Muskwa, Otter Park, and Evie Shale formations, were measured before and after exposing the core samples to spontaneous imbibition using dilute acid [1- or 3-wt% hydrochloric acid (HCl) diluted in 10-wt% potassium chloride (KCl) brine]. Permeability and porosity were measured at net stress between 1,000 and 5,000 psia. Brine and dilute-acid imbibition effect on proppant embedment, rock softening/weakening, and fracture roughnesswere assessed. The following are some of the experiment observations: (a) Formation damage caused by water blockage of water-wet shales can be improved by adding dilute HCl or by using hydrocarbon-based fracturing fluids; (b) matrix permeability of clay-rich or calcite-poor shale samples is usually impaired/damaged by dilute-acid imbibition; (c) matrix permeability and porosity of calcite-rich shales usually improved with dilute-acid imbibition; (d) effective fracture permeability of unpropped calcite-rich shales is reduced by dilute-acid imbibition; the latter is because of “rock softening” and “etching/smoothing” of fracture roughness on the “fracture faces.” Nevertheless, dilute-acid imbibition is less damaging than brine (slickwater) imbibition; and (e) proppant embedment was observed during both brine (slickwater) and dilute-acid imbibition. Hence, experimental results of this study imply that dilute-acid injection/imbibition/fracturing in carbonate-rich shale reservoirs can lead to hydrocarbon-production improvement caused mainly by the matrix/permeability improvement.
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