Effect of Dilute Acid on Hydraulic Fracturing of Carbonate-Rich Shales: Experimental Study
- Tadesse Weldu Teklu (Colorado School of Mines) | Daejin Park (Korea Gas Corporation and Colorado School of Mines) | Hoiseok Jung (Korea Gas Corporation and Colorado School of Mines) | Kaveh Amini (Colorado School of Mines) | Hazim Abass (Halliburton and Colorado School of Mines)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 170 - 184
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Dilute Acid, Slickwater or Brine Imbibition / soaking, Stress dependent permeability or fracture width and their hysteresis, Fracture roughness, rock softening/weakening and proppant embedment, Horn River Basin,British Columbia, Canada, Hydronic fracturing, Matrix and Fracture Permeability, Stimulated Reservoir Volume
- 21 in the last 30 days
- 200 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Matrix and fracture permeability of carbonate-rich tight cores from Horn River Basin, Muskwa, Otter Park, and Evie Shale formations, were measured before and after exposing the core samples to spontaneous imbibition using dilute acid [1- or 3-wt% hydrochloric acid (HCl) diluted in 10-wt% potassium chloride (KCl) brine]. Permeability and porosity were measured at net stress between 1,000 and 5,000 psia. Brine and dilute-acid imbibition effect on proppant embedment, rock softening/weakening, and fracture roughnesswere assessed. The following are some of the experiment observations: (a) Formation damage caused by water blockage of water-wet shales can be improved by adding dilute HCl or by using hydrocarbon-based fracturing fluids; (b) matrix permeability of clay-rich or calcite-poor shale samples is usually impaired/damaged by dilute-acid imbibition; (c) matrix permeability and porosity of calcite-rich shales usually improved with dilute-acid imbibition; (d) effective fracture permeability of unpropped calcite-rich shales is reduced by dilute-acid imbibition; the latter is because of “rock softening” and “etching/smoothing” of fracture roughness on the “fracture faces.” Nevertheless, dilute-acid imbibition is less damaging than brine (slickwater) imbibition; and (e) proppant embedment was observed during both brine (slickwater) and dilute-acid imbibition. Hence, experimental results of this study imply that dilute-acid injection/imbibition/fracturing in carbonate-rich shale reservoirs can lead to hydrocarbon-production improvement caused mainly by the matrix/permeability improvement.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Akrad, O. M., Miskimins, J. L., and Prasad, M. 2011. The Effects of Fracturing Fluids on Shale Rock Mechanical Properties and Proppant Embedment. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-146658-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/146658-MS.
Alharthy, N., Teklu, T., Kazemi, H. et al. 2015. Enhanced Oil Recovery in Liquid-Rich Shale Reservoirs: Laboratory to Field. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175034-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175034-MS.
BC Oil and Gas Commission (BC OGC). 2014. Horn River Basin Unconventional Shale Gas Play Atlas. Report, BC Oil and Gas Commission, British Columbia, Canada (June 2014).
Bertoncello, A., Wallace, J., Blyton, C. et al. 2014. Imbibition and Water Blockage in Unconventional Reservoirs: Well Management Implications During Flowback and Early Production. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (4): 497–506. SPE-167698-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167698-PA.
Chalmers, G. R., Ross, D. J., and Bustin, R. M. 2012. Geological Controls on Matrix Permeability of Devonian Gas Shales in the Horn River and Liard Basins, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada. International Journal of Coal Geology 103: 120–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2012.05.006.
Dong, T. and Harris, N. B. 2013. Pore-Size Distribution and Morphology in the Horn River Shale, Middle and Upper Devonian, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada. AAPG Memoir 102: 67–79. https://doi.org/10.1306/13391706M1023584.
EIA. 2016. Drilling Productivity Report for Key Tight Oil and Shale Gas Regions. http://www.eia.gov (accessed January 2016).
Elgassier, M. M. and Stolyarov, S. M. 2008. Reasons for Oil-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Western Siberia. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 13–15 February. SPE-112092-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/112092-MS.
Lai, B., Li, H., Zhang, J. et al. 2016. Water-Content Effects on Dynamic Elastic Properties of Organic-Rich Shale. SPE J. 21 (2): 635–647. SPE-175040-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/175040-PA.
Lan, Q., Xu, M., Dehghanpour, H. et al. 2014. Advances in Understanding Wettability of Tight and Shale Gas Formations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 27–29 October. SPE-170969-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170969-MS.
Li, H., Lai, B., Liu, H. H. et al. 2017. Experimental Investigation on Brazilian Tensile Strength of Organic-Rich Gas Shale. SPE J. 22 (1): 148–161. SPE-177644-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/177644-PA.
Makhanov, K. 2013. An Experimental Study of Spontaneous Imbibition in Horn River Shales. MS thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, University of Alberta.
Morsy, S., Sheng, J. J., Gomaa, A. M. et al. 2013. Potential of Improved Waterflooding in Acid Hydraulically Fractured Shale Formations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166403-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/166403-MS.
Morsy, S., Gomaa, A., and Sheng, J. J. 2014. Imbibition Characteristics of Marcellus Shale Formation. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169034-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169034-MS.
Morsy, S., Hetherington, C. J., and Sheng, J. J. 2015. Effect of Low-Concentration HCL on the Mineralogy, Physical and Mechanical Properties, and Recovery Factors of Some Shales. Journal of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources 9: 94–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juogr.2014.11.005.
Ross, D. J. K. and Bustin, R. M. 2008. Characterizing the Shale Gas Resource Potential of Devonian-Mississippian Strata in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: Application of An Integrated Formation Evaluation. AAPG Bull. 92: 87–125. https://doi.org/10.1306/09040707048.
Sheng, J., Morsy, S., Gomaa, A. et al. 2014. Matrix Acidizing Characteristics in Shale Formations. Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology 5: 194. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7463.1000194.
Sheng, J. 2015. Enhanced Oil Recovery in Shale Reservoirs by Gas Injection. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 22: 252–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2014.12.002.
Teklu, T. W., Akinboyewa, J., Alharthy, N. et al. 2013. Pressure and Rate Analysis of Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs: Numerical and Analytical Dual-Porosity Models. Presented at the Middle East Unconventional Gas Conference & Exhibition, Muscat, Oman, 28–30 January. SPE-163967-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/163967-MS.
Teklu, T. W., Zhou, Z., Li, X. et al. 2016. Experimental Investigation on Permeability and Porosity Hysteresis in Low-Permeability Formations. Presented at the SPE Low-Perm Symposium, Denver, 5–6 May. SPE-180226-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180226-MS.
Teklu, T. W., Abass, H., Hanashmooni, R. et al. 2017a. Experimental Investigation of Acid Imbibition on Matrix and Fractured Carbonate Rich Shales. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 45: 706–725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2017.06.001.
Teklu, T. W., Amini, K., Daejin, P. et al. 2017b. Effect of Dilute Acid on Hydraulic Fracturing of Carbonate-Rich Shales—Modeling Study. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky, 4–6 October. SPE-187533-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/187533-MS.
Teklu, T. W., Li, X., Zhou, Z. et al. 2018. Low-Salinity Water and Surfactants for Hydraulic Fracturing and EOR of Shales. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 162: 367–377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2017.12.057.
Tripathi, D. and Pournik, M. 2014. Effect of Acid on Productivity of Fractured Shale Reservoirs. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 25–27 August. URTeC-1922960. https://doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2014-1922960.
Wang F. P., Reed, R. M., John, A. et al. 2009. Pore Networks and Fluid Flow in Gas Shales. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4–7 October. SPE-124253-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/124253-MS.
Wu, W. and Sharma, M. M. 2017. Acid Fracturing in Shales: Effect of Dilute Acid on Properties and Pore Structure of Shale. SPE Prod & Oper 32 (1): 51–63. SPE-173390-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173390-PA.
Yilmaz, I. and Sendir, H. 2002. Correlation of Schmidt Hardness With Unconfined Compressive Strength and Young’s Modulus in Gypsum From Sivas (Turkey). Engineering Geology 66 (3): 211–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(02)00041-8.
Zhang, T., Ellis, G. S., Ruppel, S. C. et al. 2012. Effect of Organic-Matter Type and Thermal Maturity on Methane Adsorption in Shale-Gas Systems. Organic Geochemistry 47: 120–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2012.03.012.
Zhang, J., Ouyang, L., Zhu, D. et al. 2015. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Reduced Fracture Conductivity Due to Proppant Embedment in the Shale Reservoir. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 130: 37–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.04.004.
Zhou, Z., Abass, H., Li, X. et al. 2016. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Imbibition on Shale Permeability During Hydraulic Fracturing. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 29: 413–430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.01.023.