Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery Using Mixtures of Energizing Chemicals in Unconventional Reservoirs
- Kishore K. Mohanty (University of Texas at Austin) | Songyang Tong (University of Texas at Austin) | Chammi Miller (University of Texas at Austin) | Tongzhou Zeng (University of Texas at Austin) | Matt M. Honarpour (BHP) | Edward Turek (BHP) | Douglas D. Peck (BHP)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- November 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,436 - 1,448
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- shale, permeability improvement, Interfacial tension, wettability alteration, Improved oil recovery
- 28 in the last 30 days
- 135 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The objective of this work is to design and evaluate an effective blend of chemicals that can be injected into shale (black oil or critical fluid) reservoirs to enhance hydrocarbon recovery. The blend can be implemented as a prepad fluid ahead of hydraulic-fracturing fluid or as a remedial fluid later in the life of a well. A chemical blend (CB) consisting of an organic solvent (OS), a surfactant, and an oxidizing agent (OA) (in conjunction with an acid) was designed, developed, and tested in the laboratory on crushed rocks, core plugs, and fractured cores to evaluate the interactions of the chemicals with the shale samples. Microcomputed-tomography (micro-CT) scanning, scanning electron microscopy, and Brinell hardness tests were used to evaluate surface changes in the shales.
The results of laboratory experiments demonstrate that the CB extracts up to 30% of mobile oil in crushed rocks and improves permeability by 25 to 100% in thin core plugs. Some of the mechanisms that might support the CB application are as follows: (1) pressurization of the formation and reopening of the closed fractures, thus improving well productivity; (2) extraction and mobilization of low-mobility oil, remnants of the original kerogen, removal of deposited salt, and trapped water in matrix and fracture network that impedes fluid flow; (3) creation of pathways to high-pressure liquid-rich small organic pores, where hydrocarbon liquids are trapped, adsorbed, and dissolved in the kerogen; (4) creation of flow pathways for the intrusion of aqueous-based fluids in oil-wet organic-rich rocks with wettability alteration to accelerate the injection, countercurrent imbibition, and osmotic processes; and (5) enhancement of porosity and permeability of fracture surfaces by the introduction of a delayed reaction mechanism to deliver acids deeper into the microfracture network without compromising rock mechanical properties. The presence of sulfate ions in the OA did not contribute to any noticeable scale deposit while delaying the reactivity of acid with inorganic components of shale surfaces. Several field trials have been conducted successfully in the Eagle Ford (EF) Formation.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Alvarez, J. O. and Schechter, D. S. 2016. Altering Wettability in Bakken Shale by Surfactant Additives and Potential of Improving Oil Recovery During Injection of Completion Fluids. Presented at SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 11–13 April. SPE-179688-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179688-MS.
Bertoncello, A., Wallace, J., Blyton, C. et al. 2014. Imbibition and Water Blockage in Unconventional Reservoirs: Well-Management Implications During Flowback and Early Production. Presented at SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 25–27 February. SPE-167698-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167698-PA.
Buijse, M., de Boer, P., Breukel, B. et al. 2003. Organic Acids in Carbonate Acidizing. Presented at SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13–14 May. SPE-82211-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/82211-MS.
Chang, F. F., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Lindvig, T. et al. 2008. Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Reservoirs Using Organic Acids and Mixture of HCl and Organic Acids. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 21–24 September. SPE-116601-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/116601-MS.
Chen, P. and Mohanty, K. 2013. Surfactant-Mediated Spontaneous Imbibition in Carbonate Rocks at Harsh Reservoir Conditions. SPE J. 18 (1): 124–133. SPE-153960-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/153960-PA.
Chen, P. and Mohanty, K. K. 2014. Wettability Alteration in High Temperature Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 12–16 April. SPE-169125-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169125-MS.
Curtis, J. B. 2002. Fractured Shale-Gas Systems. AAPG Bull. 86 (11): 1921–1938.
Daccord, G., Touboul, E., and Lenormand, R. 1989. Carbonate Acidizing: Toward a Quantitative Model of the Wormholing Phenomenon. SPE Prod Eng 4 (1): 63–68. SPE-16887-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/16887-PA.
Djuricic, M., Murphy, R. C., Vitorovic, D. et al. 1971. Organic Acids Obtained by Alkaline Permanganate Oxidation of Kerogen From the Green River (Colorado) Shale. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 35 (12): 1201–1207.
Ghanbari, E. and Dehghanpour, H. 2015. Impact of Rock Fabric on Water Imbibition and Salt Diffusion in Gas Shales. Int J Coal Geol 138: 55–67.
Glasbergen, G., van Batenburg, D. W., Van Domelen, M. S. et al. 2005. Field Validation of Acidizing Wormhole Models. Presented at SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Sheveningen, The Netherlands, 25–27 May. SPE-94695-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/94695-MS.
Jacobs, T. 2017. Optimism and Activity Rising in the Vaca Muerta. J Pet Technol 69 (5): 34–38. SPE-0517-0034-JPT. https://doi.org/10.2118/0517-0034-JPT.
Jeffery, G. H., Bassett, J., Mendham, J. et al. 1989. Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 490. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
King, H. 2011. Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil & Gas Wells Drilled in Shale, http://geology.com/articles/hydraulic-fracturing/.htm (accessed 14 May 2017).
Kundert, D. P. and Mullen, M. J. 2009. Proper Evaluation of Shale Gas Reservoirs Leads to a More Effective Hydraulic-Fracture Stimulation. Presented at SPE Rocky Mountain Petroleum Technology Conference, Denver, Colorado, 14–16 April. SPE-123586-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/123586-MS.
Lee, D. S., Herman, J. D., Elsworth, D. et al. 2011. A Critical Evaluation of Unconventional Gas Recovery From the Marcellus Shale, Northeastern United States. KSCE J Civ Eng 15 (4): 679. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-011-0008-4.
Matthews, H. L., Schein, G. W., and Malone, M. R. 2007. Stimulation of Gas Shales: They’re All the Same—Right? Presented at SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, College Station, Texas, 29–31 January. SPE-106070-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106070-MS.
Miller, C., Mohanty, K. K., Honarpour, M. M. et al. 2017. Energizing Fluids for Shale Formation. International Publication No. WO/2017/161157. https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017161157 (accessed 29 May 2019).
Mirchi, V., Saraji, S., Goual, L. et al. 2014. Experimental Investigation of Surfactant Flooding in Shale Oil Reservoirs: Dynamic Interfacial Tension, Adsorption, and Wettability. Presented at Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, Colorado, 25–27 August. URTEC-1913287-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2014-1913287.
Mitchell, D. L. and Speight, J. G. 1973. The Solubility of Asphaltenes in Hydrocarbon Solvents. Fuel 52 (2): 149–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(73)90040-9.
Morrow, N. R. and Mason, G. 2001. Recovery of Oil by Spontaneous Imbibition. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 6 (4): 321–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-0294(01)00100-5.
Nguyen, D., Wang, D., Oladapo, A. et al. 2014. Evaluation of Surfactants for Oil Recovery Potential in Shale Reservoirs. Presented at SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 12–16 April. SPE-169085-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169085-MS.
Sanchez-Rivera, S., Balhoff, M. T., Mohanty, K. K. 2015. Reservoir Simulation and Optimization of Huff-and-Puff Operations in the Bakken Shale. Fuel 147: 82–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.12.062.
Seethepalli, A., Adibhatla, B., and Mohanty, K. K. 2004. Physicochemical Interactions During Surfactant Flooding of Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE J. 9 (4): 411–418. SPE-89423-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/89423-PA.
Stalkup, F. 1984. Miscible Displacement. Richardson, Texas: SPE Monograph Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Tovar, F. D., Eide, O., Graue, A. et al. 2014. Experimental Investigation of Enhanced Recovery in Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs Using CO2: A Look Ahead to the Future of Unconventional EOR. Presented at SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 1–3 April. SPE-169022-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169022-MS.
Tripathi, D. and Pournik, M. 2014. Effect of Acid on Productivity of Fractured Shale Reservoirs. Presented at Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, Colorado, 25–27 August. URTEC-1922960-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2014-1922960.
Wang, D., Butler, R., Zhang, J. et al. 2012. Wettability Survey in Bakken Shale With Surfactant-Formulation Imbibition. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (6): 695–705. SPE-153853-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/153853-PA.
Warpinski, N. R., Mayerhofer, M. J., Vincent, M. C. et al. 2009. Stimulating Unconventional Reservoirs: Maximizing Network Growth While Optimizing Fracture Conductivity. J Can Pet Technol 48 (10): 39–51. SPE-114173-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/114173-PA.
Whitfield, T., Watkins, H., Dickinson, J. 2018. Pre-loads: Successful Mitigation of Damaging Frac Hits in Eagle Ford. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 24–26 September. SPE-191712-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/191712-MS.
Wu, W. and Sharma, M. M. 2017. Acid Fracturing in Shales: Effect of Dilute Acid on Properties and Pore Structure of Shale. SPE Prod & Oper 32 (1): 51–63. SPE-173390-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173390-PA.
Zhou, Z., Hoffman, B. T., Bearinger, D. et al. 2014. Experimental and Numerical Study on Spontaneous Imbibition of Fracturing Fluids in Shale Gas Formation. Presented at SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 30 September–2 October. SPE-171600-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171600-MS.
Zuckerman, G. 2013. Breakthrough: The Accidental Discovery That Revolutionized American Energy. The Atlantic, 6 November.