A Comprehensive Model for Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery With Nanopore Confinement in the Bakken Tight Oil Reservoir
- Yuan Zhang (China University of Geosciences Beijing) | Yuan Di (Peking University) | Wei Yu (Texas A&M University) | Kamy Sepehrnoori (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 122 - 136
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Complex fracture geometry, Nanopore confinment, Tight oil, CO2 Huff-n-Puff, Minimum miscible pressure
- 44 in the last 30 days
- 284 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection is an effective enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) method in unconventional oil reservoirs. However, investigation of the CO2 huff ’n’ puff process in tight oil reservoirs with nanopore confinement is lacking in the petroleum industry. The conventional models need to be modified to consider nanopore confinement in both phase equilibrium and fluid transport.
Hence, we develop an efficient model to fill this gap and apply to the field production of the Bakken tight oil reservoir. Complexfracture geometries are also handled in this model. First, we revised the phase equilibrium calculation and evaluated the fluid properties with nanopore confinement. An excellent agreement between this proposed model and the experimental data is obtained considering nanopore confinement. Afterward, we verified the calculated minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) using this model against the experimental data from a rising-bubble apparatus (RBA). We analyzed the MMP and well performance of CO2 EOR in the Bakken tight oil reservoir. On the basis of the prediction of the field data, the MMP is 450 psi lower than the MMP with bulk fluid when the pore size reduces to 10 nm. Subsequently, we examined the effects of key parameters such as matrix permeability and CO2 molecular diffusion on the CO2 huff ’n’ puff process. Results show that both CO2-diffusion and capillary pressure effects improve the oil recovery factor from tight oil reservoirs, which should be correctly implemented in the simulation model. Finally, we analyzed well performance of a field-scale horizontal well from the Bakken Formation with nonplanar fractures and natural fractures. Contributions of CO2-diffusion and capillary pressure effects are also examined in depth in field scale with complex-fracture geometries. The oil recovery factor of the CO2 huff ’n’ puff process with both CO2-diffusion and capillary pressure effects increases by as much as 5.1% in the 20-year period compared with the case without these factors.
This work efficiently analyzes the CO2 huff ’n’ puff process with complex-fracture geometries considering CO2 diffusion and nanopore confinement in the field production from the Bakken tight oil reservoir. This model can provide a strong basis for accurately predicting the long-term production with complex-fracture geometries in tight oil reservoirs.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Adamson, A. W. 1990. Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, fifth edition. New York City: John Wiley & Sons.
Adekunle, O. O. and Hoffman, B. T. 2014. Minimum Miscibility Pressure Studies in the Bakken. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169077-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169077-MS.
Ahmadi, K. and Johns, R. T. 2011. Multiple-Mixing-Cell Method for MMP Calculations. SPE J. 16 (4): 733–742. SPE-116823-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/116823-PA.
Cherian, B. V., Stacey, E. S., Lewis, R. et al. 2012. Evaluating Horizontal Well Completion Effectiveness in a Field Development Program. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6–8 February. SPE-152177-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/152177-MS.
Cinar, Y. and Orr, F. M. 2004. Measurement of Three-Phase Relative Permeability with IFT Variation. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 17–21 April. SPE-89419-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/89419-MS.
Devegowda, D., Sapmanee, K., Civan, F. et al. 2012. Phase Behavior of Gas Condensates in Shales Due to Pore Proximity Effects: Implications for Transport, Reserves and Well Productivity. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-160099-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/160099-MS.
Diaz Campos, M., Akkutlu, I. Y., and Sigal, R. F. 2009. A Molecular Dynamics Study on Natural Gas Solubility Enhancement in Water Confined to Small Pores. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4–7 October. SPE-124491-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/124491-MS.
Du, S., Yoshida, N., Liang, B. et al. 2016. Application of Multi-Segment Well Approach: Dynamic Modeling of Hydraulic Fractures. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 34 (August): 886–897. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.07.028.
Firoozabadi, A. 1999. Thermodynamics of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs. New York City: McGraw-Hill.
Flowers, J. R., Guetta, D. R., Stephenson, C. J. et al. 2014. A Statistical Study of Proppant Type vs. Well Performance in the Bakken Central Basin. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-168618-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168618-MS.
Gamadi, T. D., Elldakli, F., and Sheng, J. J. 2014. Compositional Simulation Evaluation of EOR Potential in Shale Oil Reservoirs by Cyclic Natural Gas Injection. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 25–27 August. URTEC-1922690-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2014-1922690.
Hawthorne, S. B., Gorecki, C. D., Sorensen, J. A. et al. 2013. Hydrocarbon Mobilization Mechanisms from Upper, Middle, and Lower Bakken Reservoir Rocks Exposed to CO2. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 5–7 November. SPE-167200-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167200-MS.
Kurtoglu, B. and Kazemi, H. 2012. Evaluation of Bakken Performance Using Coreflooding, Well Testing, and Reservoir Simulation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, 8–10 October. SPE-155655-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/155655-MS.
Kurtoglu, B., Kazemi, H., Rosen, R. et al. 2014. A Rock and Fluid Study of Middle Bakken Formation: Key to Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 30 September–2 October. SPE-171668-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171668-MS.
Li, L. and Lee, S. H. 2008. Efficient Field-Scale Simulation of Black Oil in a Naturally Fractured Reservoir Through Discrete Fracture Networks and Homogenized Media. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (4): 750–758. SPE-103901-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/103901-PA.
Moinfar, A., Varavei, A., Sepehrnoori, K. et al. 2014. Development of an Efficient Embedded Discrete Fracture Model for 3D Compositional Reservoir Simulation in Fractured Reservoirs. SPE J. 19 (2): 289–303. SPE-154246-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/154246-PA.
Nojabaei, B. and Johns, R. T. 2015. Consistent Extrapolation of Black and Volatile Oil Fluid Properties Above Original Saturation Pressure for Tight and Conventional Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston, 23–25 February. SPE-173221-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173221-MS.
Nojabaei, B., Siripatrachai, N., Johns, R. T. et al. 2014. Effect of Saturation Dependent Capillary Pressure on Production in Tight Rocks and Shales: A Compositionally-Extended Black Oil Formulation. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Charleston, West Virginia, 21–23 October. SPE-171028-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171028-MS.
Peng, D. Y. and Robinson, D. B. 1976. A New Two-Constant Equation of State. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamen. 15 (1): 59–64. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Pitakbunkate, T., Balbuena, P. B., Moridis, G. J. et al. 2016. Effect of Confinement on Pressure/Volume/Temperature Properties of Hydrocarbons in Shale Reservoirs. SPE J. 21 (2): 621–634. SPE-170685-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170685-PA.
Price, L. C., Daws, T., Pawlewicz, M. 1986. Organic Metamorphism in the Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken Shales. Part 1: Rock-Eval Pyrolysis and Vitrinite Reflectance. J. Petrol. Geo 9 (2): 125–162.
Rachford, H. H. Jr. and Rice, J. D. 1952. Procedure for Use of Electronic Digital Computers in Calculating Flash Vaporization Hydrocarbon Equilibrium. J Pet Technol 4 (10): 19–20. SPE-952327-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/952327-G.
Reid, R. C., Prausnitz, J. M., and Poling, B. E. 1987. The Properties of Gases and Liquids. New York City: McGraw-Hill.
Rezaveisi, M., Sepehrnoori, K., Pope, G. A. et al. 2015. Compositional Simulation Including Effect of Capillary Pressure on Phase Behavior. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175135-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175135-MS.
Sandoval, D., Yan, W., Michelsen, M. L. et al. 2015. Phase Envelope Calculations for Reservoir Fluids in the Presence of Capillary Pressure. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175110-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175110-MS.
Singh, K. S., Sinha, A., Deo, G. et al. 2009. Vapor-Liquid Phase Coexistence, Critical Properties, and Surface Tension of Confined Alkanes. J. Phys. Chem. C 113 (17): 7170–7180. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp8073915.
Song, C. and Yang, D. 2013. Performance Evaluation of CO2 Huff-n-Puff Processes in Tight Oil Formations. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference Canada, Calgary, 5–7 November. SPE-167217-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167217-MS.
Sorensen, J., Braunberger, J. R., Liu, G. et al. 2015. Characterization and Evaluation of the Bakken Petroleum System for CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery. Oral presentation given at the Wyoming EOR CO2 Conference, Casper, Wyoming, 16 July.
Sun, C.-Y. and Chen, G.-J. 2005. Measurement of Interfacial Tension for the CO2 Injected Crude OilþReservoir Water System. J. Chem. Eng. Data 50 (3): 936–938. https://doi.org/10.1021/je0495839.
Vinassa, M., Cudjoe, S. E., Gomes, J. H. B. et al. 2015. A Comprehensive Approach to Sweet-Spot Mapping for Hydraulic Fracturing and CO2 Huff-n-Puff Injection in Chattanooga Shale Formation. Presented at the SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 20–22 October. SPE-175952-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175952-MS.
Wan, T., Meng, X., Sheng, J. J. et al. 2014. Compositional Modeling of EOR Process in Stimulated Shale Oil Reservoirs by Cyclic Gas Injection. Presented at SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169069-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169069-MS.
Wang, Y., Yan, B., and Killough, J. 2013. Compositional Modeling of Tight Oil Using Dynamic Nanopore Properties. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166267-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/166267-MS.
West, D. R. M., Harkrider, J., Besler, M. R., et al. 2013. Optimized Production in the Bakken Shale: South Antelope Case Study. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Technology Conference Canada, Calgary, Alberta, 5–7 November. SPE-167168-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167168-MS.
Wu, K. and Olson, J. E. 2016. Numerical Investigation of Complex Hydraulic-Fracture Development in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Prod & Oper 31 (4): 300–309. SPE-173326-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173326-PA.
Xu, Y., Cavalcante Filho, J. S., Yu, W. et al. 2017. Discrete-Fracture Modeling of Complex Hydraulic-Fracture Geometries in Reservoir Simulators. SPE Res Eval & Eng 20 (2): 403–422. SPE-183647-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/183647-PA.
Yu, W., Lashgari, H. R., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2014. Simulation Study of CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in Bakken Tight Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Western North American and Rocky Mountain Joint Meeting, Denver, 17–18 April. SPE-169575-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169575-MS.
Yu, W., Lashgari, H. R., Wu, K. et al. 2015. CO2 Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Bakken Tight Oil Reservoirs. Fuel 159 (1 November): 354–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.06.092.
Zarragoicoechea, G. J. and Kuz, V. A. 2004. Critical Shift of a Confined Fluid in a Nanopore. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 220 (1): 7–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2004.02.014.
Zhang, K., Seetahal, S., Alexander, D. et al. 2016. Effect of Confinement on Gas and Oil Relative Permeability During CO2 Flooding in Tight Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Trinidad and Tobago Section Energy Resources Conference, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 13–15 June. SPE-180856-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180856-MS.
Zhang, Y., Lashgari, H. R., Di, Y. et al. 2016. Capillary Pressure Effect on Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior in Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Low Perm Symposium, Denver, 5–6 May. SPE-180235-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180235-MS.
Zhang, Y., Yu, W., Sepehrnoori, K. et al. 2017a. A Comprehensive Numerical Model for Simulating Fluid Transport in Nanopores. Scientific Reports 7: 40507. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40507.
Zhang, Y., Yu, W., Sepehrnoori, K. et al. 2017b. Investigation of Nanopore Confinement on Fluid Flow in Tight Reservoirs. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 150 (February): 265–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.11.005.
Zuloaga-Molero, P., Yu, W., Xu, Y. et al. 2016. Simulation Study of CO2-EOR in Tight Oil Reservoirs with Complex Fracture Geometries. Scientific Reports 6: 33445. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep33445.