Effect of Water Salinity and Water-Filled Pore Volume on High-Frequency Dielectric Measurements in Porous Media
- Huangye Chen (Texas A&M University) | Zoya Heidari (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 202 - 214
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Saturation, High-frequency, Experimental Method, Porous Media, Dielectric Permittivity
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 258 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
High-frequency dielectric measurements have been attractive candidates for assessment of water-filled porosity in porous media. In the presence of saline water, the water molecules lose their orientation freedom partially because of hydration with ions and make these measurements sensitive to water salinity, which makes the interpretation of the dielectric-permittivity measurements challenging. The effects of water salinity on the real and the imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity have not yet been quantitatively studied in highfrequency (e.g., greater than 1 GHz) measurements. We measured dielectric permittivity of brine at frequencies ranging from 1 MHz to 3 GHz at room temperature and pressure conditions, where water salinity varies between 0 and 160 kiloparts per million (kppm). We also measured the dielectric permittivity of rock samples with different brine saturations. Our experimental results confirmed that there exists a critical frequency above which water salinity does not affect the real part of the dielectric constant, and such critical frequency increases as water-filled porosity and water salinity increase. At high frequencies where the real part of the dielectric constant is independent of the frequency, there exists a critical water-filled porosity below which water salinity has negligible effect on the real part of the dielectric constant. However, when water-filled porosity is higher than this critical value, the real part of the dielectric constant slightly decreases by increasing water salinity. Further, the results showed that at frequencies greater than the critical frequency, there is a critical water salinity below which the imaginary part of the dielectric constant increases as the water salinity increases, whereas the imaginary part of the dielectric constant decreases if the water salinity exceeds the critical value. The quantitative results on the effect of water salinity on dielectric measurements can potentially improve interpretation of dielectric-permittivity measurements for reliable assessment of water-filled porosity and hydrocarbon saturation.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Arora, S. M., Horstmann, D., Cherukupalli, P. K. et al. 2010. Single-Well In-Situ Measurement of Residual Oil Saturation After an EOR Chemical Flood. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 11–13 April. SPE-129069-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129069-MS.
Brahmakulam, J., Faivre, O., Ishibashi, M. et al. 2011. Applications of a Multi-Frequency Dielectric Measurement in the Cretaceous Carbonates of the Middle East. Oral presentation given at the SPWLA-INDIA 3rd Annual Logging Symposium, Mumbai, 25–26 November.
Calvert, T. J. and Wells, L. E. 1977. Electromagnetic Propagation ... A New Dimension in Logging. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 13–15 April. SPE-6542-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/6542-MS.
Chandra, A. and Bagchi, B. 2000. Frequency Dependence of Ionic Conductivity of Electrolyte Solutions. J. Chem. Phys. 112 (4): 1876–1886. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.480751.
Chen, H. and Heidari, Z. 2014. Pore-Scale Evaluation of Dielectric Measurements in Formations with Complex Pore and Grain Structures. Petrophysics 55 (6): 587–597. SPWLA-2014-v55n6a4.
Chen, H. and Heidari, Z. 2016. Pore-Scale Joint Evaluation of Dielectric Permittivity and Electrical Resistivity for Assessment of Hydrocarbon Saturation Using Numerical Simulations. SPE J. 21 (6): 1930–1942. SPE-170973-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170973-PA.
Chen, H. and Heidari, Z. 2016. Quantifying the Directional Connectivity of Rock Constituents and its Impact on Electrical Resistivity of Organic-Rich Mudrocks. Math. Geosci. 48 (3): 285–303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11004-015-9595-9.
Dahlberg, K. E. and Ference, M. V. 1984. A Quantitative Test of the Electromagnetic Propagation (EPT) Log for Residual Oil Determination. Presented at the SPWLA 25th Annual Logging Symposium, New Orleans, 10–13 June. SPWLA-1984-DDD.
Dukhin, S. S. and Shilov, V. N. 1974. Dielectric Phenomena and Double Layer in Disperse Systems and Polyelectrolytes. J. Electrochem. Soc. 121 (4): 154C. https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2402374.
Falkenhagen, H. 1931. The Principal Ideas in the Interionic Attraction Theory of Strong Electrolytes. Rev. Modern Phys. 3 (3): 412–426. https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.3.412.
Feng, S. and Sen, P. N. 1985. Geometrical Model of Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of Partially Saturated Rocks. J. Appl. Phys. 58 (8): 3236–3243. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.335804.
Gilmore, R. J., Clark, B., and Best, D. 1987. Enhanced Saturation Determination Using the Ept-G Endfire Antenna Array. Presented at the SPWLA 28th Annual Logging Symposium, London, 29 June–2 July. SPWLA-1987-K.
Grosse, C. 1988. Permittivity of a Suspension of Charged Spherical Particles in Electrolyte Solution. 2. Influence of the Surface Conductivity and Asymmetry of the eElectrolyte on the Low- and High-Frequency Relaxations. J. Phys. Chem. 92 (13): 3905–3910. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100324a044.
Hizem, M., Budan, H., Deville, B. et al. 2008. Dielectric Dispersion: A New Wireline Petrophysical Measurement. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21–24 September. SPE-116130-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/116130-MS.
Kethireddy, N., Chen, H., and Heidari, Z. 2014. Quantifying the Effect of Kerogen on Resistivity Measurements in Organic-Rich Mudrocks. Petrophysics 55 (2): 136–146. SPWLA-2014-v55n2a6.
Lane, J. A. and Saxton, J. A. 1952. Dielectric Dispersion in Pure Polar Liquids at Very High Radio Frequencies. III. The Effect of Electrolytes in Solution. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 214 (1119): 531–545. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1952.0187.
Lasne, Y., Paillou, P., Freeman, A. et al. 2008. Effect of Salinity on the Dielectric Properties of Geological Materials: Implication for Soil Moisture Detection by Means of Radar Remote Sensing. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 46 (6): 1674–1688. https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2008.916220.
Lawrence, K. C., Windham, W. R., and Nelson, S. O. 1998. Wheat Moisture Determination by 1- to 110-MHz Swept-Frequency Admittance Measurements. Trans. ASAE 41 (1): 135–142.
Linde, N., Binley, A., Tryggvason, A. et al. 2006. Improved Hydrogeophysical Characterization Using Joint Inversion of Cross-Hole Electrical Resistance and Ground-Penetrating Radar Travel Time Data. Water Resour. Res. 42 (12): W12404. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006WR005131.
Little, J. D., Julander, D. R., Knauer, L. C. et al. 2010. Dielectric Dispersion Measurements in California Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPWLA 51st Annual Logging Symposium, Perth, Australia, 19–23 June. SPWLA-2010-14021.
Mosse, L., Carmona, R., Decoster, E. et al. 2009. Dielectric Dispersion Logging in Heavy Oil: A Case Study from the Orinoco Belt. Presented at the SPWLA 50th Annual Logging Symposium The Woodlands, Texas, 21–24 June. SPWLA-2009-52901.
Misra, S., Torres-Verdi´n, C., Revil, A. et al. 2016. Interfacial Polarization of Disseminated Conductive Minerals in Absence of Redox-Active Species–Part 2: Effective Electrical Conductivity and Dielectric Permittivity: Geophysics 81 (2): E159–E176. https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2015-0400.1.
Nelson, S. O. 1991. Dielectric Properties of Agricultural Products Measurements and Applications. IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul. 26 (5): 845–869. https://doi.org/10.1109/14.99097.
Passey, Q. R., Bohacs, K., Esch, W. L. et al. 2010. From Oil-Prone Source Rock to Gas-Producing Shale Reservoir - Geologic and Petrophysical Characterization of Unconventional Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Beijing, 8–10 June. SPE-131350-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/131350-MS.
Pirrone, M., Mei, H., Bona, N. et al. 2011. A Novel Approach Based on Dielectric Dispersion Measurements to Evaluate the Quality of Complex Shalysand Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-147245-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/147245-MS.
Rankin, D. and Singh, R. P. 1985. Effect of Clay and Salinity on the Dielectric Properties of Rock. J. Geophys. Res. 90 (B10): 8793–8800. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB090iB10p08793.
Schmitt, D. P., Al-Harbi, A., Saldungaray, P. et al. 2011. Revisiting Dielectric Logging in Saudi Arabia: Recent Experiences and Applications in Development and Exploration Wells. Presented at the SPE/DGS Saudi Arabia Section Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, 15–18 May. SPE-149131-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/149131-MS.
Seleznev, N. V., Habashy, T. M., Boyd, A. J. et al. 2006. Formation Properties Derived from a Multi-Frequency Dielectric Measurement. Presented at the SPWLA 47th Annual Logging Symposium, Veracruz, Mexico, 4–7 June. SPWLA-2006-VVV.
Sen, P. N. 1981a. Relation of Certain Geometrical Features to the Dielectric Anomaly of Rocks. Geophysics 46 (12): 1714–1720. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1441178.
Sen, P. N. 1981b. Dielectric Anomaly in Inhomogeneous Materials with Application to Sedimentary Rocks. Appl. Phys. Lett. 39 (8): 667–668. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.92813.
Sen, P. N. 1984. Grain Shape Effects on Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Rocks. Geophysics 49 (5): 586–587. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1441695.
Serag El Din, S., Kalam, M. Z., Dernaika, M. et al. 2011. Remaining Oil Saturation Study in Giant Oil Field: Integration of Reservoir Core Scale and Field Scale Measurements. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, 9–11 October. SPE-148288-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/148288-MS.
Shao, Y., Hu, Q., Guo, H. et al. 2003. Effect of Dielectric Properties of Moist Salinized Soils on Backscattering Coefficients Extracted from RADARSAT Image. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 41 (8): 1879–1888. https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2003.813499.
Stroud, D., Milton, G. W., and De, B. R. 1986. Analytical Model for the Dielectric Response of Brine-Saturated Rocks. Phys. Rev. B 34 (8): 5145–5153. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.34.5145.
Taherian, M. R., Kenyon, W. E., and Safinya, K. A. 1990. Measurement of Dielectric Response of Water-Saturated Rocks. Geophysics 55 (12): 1530–1541. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1442804.
Wharton, R. P., Rau, R. N., and Best, D. L. 1980. Electromagnetic Propagation Logging: Advances in Technique and Interpretation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 21–24 September. SPE-9267-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/9267-MS.
Wong, P., Koplik, J., and Tomanic, J. P. 1984. Conductivity and Permeability of Rocks. Phys. Rev. B 30 (11): 6606–6614. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.30.6606.
Wu, Y., Wang, W., Zhao, S. et al. 2015. Dielectric Properties of Saline Soil and an Improved Dielectric Model in C-Band. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote 53 (1): 440–452. https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2014.2323424.