Scaling Up Highly Permeable Thin Layers Into Flow Simulation
- Manuel Gomes Correia (University of Campinas) | Denis José Schiozer (University of Campinas)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 501 - 520
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Carbonate Reservoirs, Upscaling, Dual-medium flow models
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 275 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Giant reservoirs such as Lula (Santos Oil Basin, Brazil) and Ghawar (Saudi Arabia) have high-permeability intervals, known as super-k zones, associated with thin layers. Modeling these small-scale flow features in large-scale simulation models is difficult. Current methods are limited by high computational costs or simplifications that mismatch the representation of these features in simulation gridblocks. This work has two purposes: present an upscaling work flow to integrate highly laminated or interbedded reservoirs with thin, highly permeable layers in reservoir simulations through a combination of an explicit modeling of super-k layers using the Parsons (1966) formula and dual-medium flow models, and compare this method with two conventional upscaling approaches that are available in commercial software.
We use the benchmark model UNISIM-II-R (Correia et al. 2015a), a fine single-porosity grid dependent on field information from the Brazilian presalt and Ghawar oil fields, as the reference solution to compare the upscaling matching between the three methods. We compare oil recovery factor (ORF), water cut (WC), average reservoir pressure (RP), water front, and the time consumption for simulation. Our proposed Parson’s dual-medium (PDP) methodology achieved better upscaling matches with the reference model and had minimal time consumption compared with the representation of super-k layers through an implicit matrix modeling by single-porosity flow models (IMP) and through the explicit representation of super-k zones in the fracture system of dual-medium flow models (DFNDP).
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||18|
Ahr, W. M. 2008. Geology of Carbonate Reservoirs: The Identification, Description, and Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Al-Dhafeeri, A. M. and Nasr-El-Din., H. A. 2006. Characteristics of High-Permeability Zones Using Core Analysis, and Production Logging Data. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 55 (1–2): 18–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.04.019.
Al-Otaibi, S. S. and Al-Majed, A. A. 1998. Factors Affecting Pseudo Relative Permeability Curves. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 21 (3–4): 249–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(98)00070-9.
Barenblatt, G. I., Zheltov, I. P., and Kochina, I. N. 1960. Basic Concepts in the Theory of Seepage of Homogeneous Liquids in Fissured Rocks. J. Appl. Math. Mech. 24 (5): 852–864. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8928(60)90107-6.
Beltrao, R. L. C., Sombra, C. L., Lage, A. C. V. M. et al. 2009. Challenges and New Technologies for the Development of the Pre-Salt Cluster, Santos Basin, Brazil. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 4–7 May. OTC-19880-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/19880-MS.
Bourbiaux, B. 2010. Fractured Reservoir Simulation: A Challenging and Rewarding Issue. Oil Gas Sci. Technol. 65 (2): 227–238. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst/2009063.
Boyd, A., Souza, A., Carneiro, G. et al. 2015. Presalt Carbonate Evaluation for Santos Basin, Offshore Brasil. Petrophysics 56 (6): 577–591. SPWLA-2015-v56n6a2.
Boussinesq, M. J. 1868. Memoire Sur L’influence Des Frottements Dans Les Mouvements Reguliers Des Fluides. J. Math. Pures Appl. 2 (13): 377–424.
Correia, M. G., Hohendorff, J., Gaspar, A. T. F. S. et al. 2015a. UNISIM-II-D: Benchmark Case Proposal Based on a Carbonate Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Quito, Ecuador, 18–20 November. SPE-177140-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/177140-MS.
Correia, M. G., Maschio, C., and Schiozer, D. J. 2015b. Integration of Multiscale Carbonate Reservoir Heterogeneities in Reservoir Simulation. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 131 (July): 34–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.04.018.
Corbett, P. W. M. and Jensen, J. L. 1992. Estimating the Mean Permeability: How Many Measurements Do You Need? First Break 10 (3): 89–94.
Darcy, H. 1856. Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon. Paris: Dalmount.
Dershowitz, B., LaPointe, P., Eiben, T. et al. 1998. Integration of Discrete Feature Network Methods with Conventional Simulator Approaches. Presented at the SPE Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 27–30 September. SPE-49069-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/49069-MS.
Durlofsky, L. J., Jones, R. C., and Milliken, W. J. 1995. A Nonuniform Coarsening Approach for the Scale-Up of Displacement Processes in Heterogeneous Porous Media. Adv. Water Resour. 20 (5–6): 335–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(96)00053-X.
Eltom, H., Makkawi., M., Abdullatif, O. et al. 2013. High-Resolution Facies and Porosity Models of the Upper Jurassic Arab-D Carbonate Reservoir Using an Outcrop Analogue, Central Saudi Arabia. Arab J. Geosci. 6 (11): 4323–4335. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-012-0708-1.
Fayazi, A., Bagherzadeh, H., and Shahrabadi, A. 2016. Estimation of Pseudo Relative Permeability Curves for a Heterogeneous Reservoir with a New Automatic History Matching Agorithm. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 140 (April): 154–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.01.013.
Hearn, C. L. 1971. Simulation of Stratified Waterflooding by Pseudo Relative Permeability Curves. J Pet Technol 23 (7): 805–813. SPE-2929-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2929-PA.
Lomize, G. M. 1961. Water Flow in Jointed Rock (trans. Filtrarsiia v Treshchinovatykh Porod). Moscow: Gosenergoizdat.
Nelson, R. A. 2001. Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Houston: Gulf Publishing.
Nakano, C. M. F., Pinto, A. C. C., Marcusso, J. L. et al. 2009. Pre-Salt Santos Basin–Extended Well Test and Production Pilot in the Tupi Area–The
Planning Phase. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 4–7 May. OTC-19886-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/19886-MS.
Oda, M. 1985. Permeability Tensor for Discontinuous Rock Mass. Ge´otechnique 35 (4): 483–495. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1918.104.22.1683.
Parsons, R. W. 1966. Permeability of Idealized Fractured Rock. SPE J. 6 (2): 126–136. SPE-1289-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1289-PA.
Ringrose, P. S. and Bentley, M. 2015. Reservoir Model Design: A Practitioner’s Guide. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Romm, E. S. 1966. Flow Characteristics of Fractured Rocks. Moscow: Nedra Publishers.
Saalfeld, R. and Schiozer, D. J. 2016. Simulation of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Using Single-Porosity Equivalent Models. Master’s thesis, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.
Sahimi, M. 2011. Flow and Transport in Porous Media and Fractured Rocks: From Classical Methods to Modern Approaches. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Schlumberger. 2015. Petrel Software. https://www.software.slb.com/products/petrel/petrel-2015.
Snow, D. T. 1965. A Parallel Plate Model of Fractured Permeable Media. PhD dissertation, University of California–Berkeley, Berkeley, California.
Swart, P. K., Cantrell, D. L., Westphal, H. et al. 2005. Origin of Dolomite in the Arab-D Reservoir from the Ghawar Field, Saudi Arabia: Evidence from Petrographic and Geochemical Constraints. J. Sediment. Res. 75 (3): 476–491. https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2005.037.
Teutsch, G. and Sauter, M. 1991. Groundwater Modeling in Karst Terrains: Scale Effects, Data Acquisition and Field Validation. Proc., Third Conference on Hydrogeology, Ecology, Monitoring, and Management of Groundwater in Karst, Nashville, Tennessee, 4–6 December, 17–34.
Tiab, D. and Donaldson, E. C. 2011. Petrophysics: Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties. Houston: Gulf Professional Publishing.
van Golf-Racht, T. D. 1982. Fundamentals of Fractured Reservoir Engineering, Developments in Petroleum Science, Vol. 12. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Voelker, J., Liu, J., and Caers, J. 2003. A Geostatistical Method for Characterizing Superpermeability from Flow-Meter Data: Application to Ghawar Field. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 5–8 October. SPE-84279-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/84279-MS.
Warren, J. E. and Root, P. J. 1963. The Behavior of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE J. 3 (3): 245–25. SPE-426-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/426-PA.
Witherspoon, P. A., Wang, J. S. Y., Iwai, K. et al. 1980. Validity of Cubic Law for Fluid Flow in a Deformable Rock Fracture. Water Resour. Res. 16 (6): 1016–1024. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR016i006p01016.