Anisotropic-Wormhole-Network Generation in Carbonate Acidizing and Wormhole-Model Analysis Through Averaged-Continuum Simulations
- Mateus Palharini Schwalbert (Petrobras and Texas A&M University) | Ding Zhu (Texas A&M University) | A. Daniel Hill (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 90 - 108
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- wormhole model, averaged continuum model, anisotropic wormhole network, carbonate acidizing
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 257 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The optimal design of matrix-acidizing operations in carbonate reservoirs is a discussion in progress. Although several models are available to the industry for predicting wormhole propagation, most of them are not sufficiently practical to be used in real treatment designs, or they were developed to represent coreflood data and cannot be simply scaled up to represent wormhole formation in complex well geometries. This problem is addressed by Furui’s wormhole-propagation model (Furui et al. 2012a), which is a modification of the Buijse and Glasbergen (2005) empirical correlation, including a scaleup procedure to represent field carbonate-acidizing operations using laboratory coreflood data. It is a practical engineering tool that can be used for treatment designs in horizontal wells, including barefoot and perforation-cluster completions in fairly isotropic and homogeneous reservoirs.
In this work, an analysis of Furui’s model is performed, including the effect of anisotropy (x, y, z permeability) in the carbonate reservoir. The analysis includes both radial and elliptical wormhole propagation that forms from an openhole completion, and the spherical or ellipsoidal wormhole propagation that emerges from each perforation in a perforation-cluster completion that makes the use of a limited-entry technique for achieving an acceptable acid placement.
The development is made using extensive 3D numerical simulations with a two-scale continuum model and a finite-volume method to represent the dissolution of the porous medium. The numerical model is tuned to represent real results through matching experimental coreflood data and dissolution patterns.
Conclusions are obtained regarding both isotropic and anisotropic formations. In isotropic formations with the radial propagation of wormholes, simulations indicate that a number from four to six wormholes propagates radially in each plane. When the propagation is spherical, simulations result in a number from 16 to 24 wormholes, propagating spherically from the point of acid injection.
In anisotropic formations, the radial stimulated zone might become an elliptical stimulated zone, depending on the acid-injection rate and the permeability-heterogeneity magnitude. The major axis of the elliptical stimulated zone coincides with the direction of a higher permeability and a longer permeability-correlation length, and it is longer for larger acid-injection rates. In the same manner, the spherical wormhole-propagation pattern might become an ellipsoidal stimulated zone in anisotropic formations.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Akanni, O. O. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2015. The Accuracy of Carbonate Matrix-Acidizing Models in Predicting Optimum Injection and Wormhole Propagation Rates. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 8–11 March. SPE-172575-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/172575-MS.
Akanni, O. O. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2016. Modeling of Wormhole Propagation During Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Reservoirs by Organic Acids and Chelating Agents. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, 26–28 September. SPE-181348-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181348-MS.
Buijse, M. A. and Glasbergen, G. 2005. A Semi-Empirical Model To Calculate Wormhole Growth in Carbonate Acidizing. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9–12 October. SPE-96892-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/96892-MS.
CFD Direct. 2016. http://cfd.direct (accessed 8 December 2016).
Daccord, G., Touboul, E., and Lenormand, R. 1989. Carbonate Acidizing: Toward a Quantitative Model of the Wormholing Phenomenon. SPE Prod Eng 4 (1): 63–68. SPE-16887-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/16887-PA.
De Oliveira, T. J. L., Melo, A. R., Oliveira, J. A. A. et al. 2012. Numerical Simulation of the Acidizing Process and PVBT Extraction Methodology Including Porosity/Permeability and Mineralogy Heterogeneity. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 15–17 February. SPE-151823-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/151823-MS.
Economides, M. J., Hill, A. D., Ehlig-Economides, C. et al. 2013. Petroleum Production Systems, second edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Fredd, C. N. and Fogler, H. S. 1996. Alternative Stimulation Fluids and Their Impact on Carbonate Acidizing. Presented at the International Symposium on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 14–15 February. SPE-31074-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/31074-MS.
Fredd, C. N., Tjia, R., and Fogler, H. S. 1997. The Existence of an Optimum Damkohler Number for Matrix Stimulation of Carbonate Formations. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 2–3 June. SPE-38167-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/38167-MS.
Fredd, C. N. and Miller, M. J. 2000. Validation of Carbonate Matrix Stimulation Models. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 23–24 February. SPE-58713-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/58713-MS.
Frick, T. P. and Economides, M. J. 1993. Horizontal Well Damage Characterization and Removal. SPE Prod & Fac 8 (1): 15–22. SPE-21795-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/21795-PA.
Frick, T. P. and Economides, M. J. 1996. State-of-the-Art in the Matrix Stimulation of Horizontal Wells. SPE Advanced Technology Series 4 (1): 94–102. SPE-26997-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/26997-PA.
Furui, K., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. D. 2003. A Comprehensive Model of Horizontal Well Completion Performance. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 5–8 October. SPE-84401-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/84401-MS.
Furui, K., Burton, R. C., Burkhead, D. W. et al. 2012a. A Comprehensive Model of High-Rate Matrix-Acid Stimulation for Long Horizontal Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs: Part I—Scaling Up Core-Level Acid Wormholing to Field Treatments. SPE J. 17 (1): 271–279. SPE-134265-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/134265-PA.
Furui, K., Burton, R. C., Burkhead, D. W. et al. 2012b. A Comprehensive Model of High-Rate Matrix-Acid Stimulation for Long Horizontal Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs: Part II—Wellbore/Reservoir Coupled-Flow Modeling and Field Application. SPE J. 17 (1): 280–291. SPE-155497-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/155497-PA.
Golfier, F., Bazin, B., Zarcone, C. et al. 2001. Acidizing Carbonate Reservoirs: Numerical Modelling of Wormhole Propagation and Comparison to Experiments. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 21–22 May. SPE-68922-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/68922-MS.
Huang, T., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. D. 1999. Prediction of Wormhole Population Density in Carbonate Matrix Acidizing. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 31 May–1 June. SPE-54723-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/54723-MS.
Intel is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, California.
Kalia, N. and Balakotaiah, V. 2008. Effect of Medium Heterogeneities on Reactive Dissolution of Carbonates. Chemical Engineering Science 64: 376–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2008.10.026.
Liu, X. and Ortoleva, P. 1996. A General-Purpose, Geochemical Reservoir Simulator. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 6–9 October. SPE-36700-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/36700-MS.
Maheshwari, P. and Balakotaiah, V. 2013. 3D Simulation of Carbonate Acidization With HCl: Comparison With Experiments. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 23–26 March. SPE-164517-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164517-MS.
Maheshwari, P., Gharbi, O., Thirion, A. et al. 2016. Development of a Reactive Transport Simulator for Carbonates Acid Stimulation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, 26–28 September. SPE-181603-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181603-MS.
Maheshwari, P., Ratnakar, R. R., Kalia, N. et al. 2012. 3D Simulation and Analysis of Reactive Dissolution and Wormhole Formation in Carbonate Rocks. Chemical Engineering Science 90: 258–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2012.12.032.
McDuff, D., Jackson, S., Shuchart, C. et al. 2010. Understanding Wormholes in Carbonates: Unprecedented Experimental Scale and 3D Visualization. J Pet Technol 62 (10): 78–81. SPE-129329-JPT. https://doi.org/10.2118/129329-JPT.
Nield, D. A. and Bejan, A. 2006. Convection in Porous Media, third edition, New York: Springer. OpenFOAM is a registered trademark of OpenCFD Ltd., Berkshire, United Kingdom.
Panga, M. K. R., Ziauddin, M., and Balakotaiah, V. 2005. Two-Scale Continuum Model for Simulation of Wormholes in Carbonate Acidization. AIChE Journal 51 (12): 3231–3248. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.10574.
Patankar, S. V. 1980. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, first edition. Philadelphia: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
Pichler, T., Frick, T. P., Economides, M. J. et al. 1992. Stochastic Modeling of Wormhole Growth in Carbonate Acidizing With Biased Randomness. Presented at the European Petroleum Conference, Cannes, France, 16–18 November. SPE-25004-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/25004-MS.
Schwalbert, M. P., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. D. 2018. Skin Factor Equations for Anisotropic Wormhole Networks and Limited Entry Completions. Presented at the SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 7–9 February. SPE-189486-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/189486-MS.
Soulaine, C. and Tchelepi, H. A. 2016. Micro-Continuum Approach for Pore-Scale Simulation of Subsurface Processes. Transp. Porous Media 113: 431–456. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-016-0701-3.
Ubuntu is a trademark of Canonical Ltd., Isle of Man, United Kingdom.