Scaled Experimental and Simulation Study of Segregation in Water-Above-Gas Injection
- Mehran Namani (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Yaser Souraki (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Jon Kleppe (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Lars Høier (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Hassan Karimaie (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- November 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 809 - 819
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SWAG, Gas Injection, WAG
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 183 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The water-above-gas injection has been introduced as a modified injection strategy for simultaneous or alternating water/gas injection to improve the recovery factor. This can be achieved through maximizing the size of the mixed zone and extending the complete-segregation distance. Verifying this approach in the laboratory needs special experimental design in which the effect of capillary force is eliminated or strongly reduced, and viscous and gravity forces are active.
In this study, an experimental setup has been prepared and implemented to verify the advantages of the water-above-gas injection. Key parameters in this experiment have been scaled to reservoir conditions. This was possible through choosing correct porous media and fluid system. The porous media should have high porosity and permeability, and the fluid system should have very low interfacial tension (IFT) between phases. Supplementary experiments have been conducted to prove the reliability of the model before the main experiment.
In addition to the investigation of different injection rates and water/gas injection ratios in this process, the effect of stepwise injection also has been investigated to verify the practical approach, which results in maximized sweep efficiency.
Finally, a simulation study has been conducted, and by comparing its results to experimental results, the applicability of numerical simulation in designing reservoir-scale water-above-gas injection is confirmed.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Ashrafi, M. 2013. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency of Relative Permeability Data in Heavy Oil Systems With Applications to Thermal Recovery. Degree of Philosophiae Doctor thesis, Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics, Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/239967.
Berge, L. I., Stensen, J. A., Crapez, B. et al. 2002. SWAG Injectivity Behavior Based on Siri Field Data. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 13–17 April. SPE-75126-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/75126-MS.
Blackwell, R. J., Terry, W. M., Rayne, J. R. et al. 1960. Recovery of Oil by Displacements With Water-Solvent Mixtures. Petroleum Trans., AIME 219: 293–300.
Caudle, B. H. and Dyes, A. B. 1958. Improving Miscible Displacement by Gas-Water Injection. Petroleum Trans., AIME 213: 281–284.
Choudhary, M. K., Parekh, B., Dezabala, E. et al. 2012. Design, Implementation, and Performance of a Down-DipWAG Pilot. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 15–17 November. IPTC-14571-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-14571-MS.
Faisal, A., Bisdom, K., Zhumabek, B. et al. 2009. Injectivity and Gravity Segregation in WAG and SWAG Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the 2009 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4–7 October. SPE-124197-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/124197-MS.
Holt, T. and Vassenden, F. 1996. Physical Gas/Water Segregation Model. In A Norwegian Research Program on Improved Oil Recovery (RUTH), pp. 75–84. Norwegian Petroleum Directorate.
Jamshidnezhad, M. 2008. Oil Recovery by Miscible SWAG Injection. Presented at the Russian Oil and Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 28–30 October. SPE-115710-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/115710-MS.
Jamshidnezhad, M., van der Bol, L., and Rossen, W. R. 2008. Injection of Water Above Gas for Improved Sweep in Gas IOR: Performance in 3D. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 3–5 December. IPTC-12556-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-12556-MS.
Jamshidnezhad, M., van der Bol, L., and Rossen, W. R. 2010. Injection of Water Above Gas for Improved Sweep in Gas EOR: Nonuniform Injection and Sweep in 3D. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (4): 699–709. SPE-138443-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/138443-PA.
Jenkins, M. K. 1984. An Analytical Model for Water/Gas Miscible Displacements. Presented at the SPE/DOE Fourth Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 15–18 April. SPE-12632-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/12632-MS.
Li, K. and Firoozabadi, A. 2000. Experimental Study of Wettability Alteration to Preferential Gas-Wetting in Porous Media and Its Effects. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (2): 139–149. SPE-62515-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/62515-PA.
Namani, M. and Kleppe, J. 2011. Investigation of the Effect of Some Parameters in Miscible WAG Process Using Black-Oil and Compositional Simulators. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 19–21 July. SPE-143297-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/143297-MS.
Namani,M., Kleppe, J., Høier, L. et al. 2012. AnalyticalModel for Zones Distributions in Non-Horizontal Miscible WAG Injection. Energy and Environment Research 2 (2): 159–167. https://doi.org/10.5539/eer.v2n2p159.
Namani, M., Høier, L., and Kleppe, J. 2013. Advantages of Up-Dip Water-Miscible Gas Injection. Presented at the EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition incorporating SPE Europec, London, 10–13 June. SPE-164836-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/164836-MS.
Quale, E. A., Crapez, B., Stensen, J. A. et al. 2000. SWAG Injection on the Siri Field—An Optimized Injection System for Less Cost. Presented at the SPE European Petroleum Conference, Paris, 24–25 October. SPE-65165-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/65165-MS.
Rossen, W. R. and van Duijn, C. J. 2004. Gravity Segregation in Steady-State Horizontal Flow in Homogeneous Reservoirs. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 43 (1–2): 99–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2004.01.004.
Rossen, W. R., van Duijn, C. J., Nguyen, Q. P. et al. 2010. Injection Strategies to Overcome Gravity Segregation in Simultaneous Gas and Water Injection Into Homogeneous Reservoirs. SPE J. 15 (1): 76–90. SPE-99794-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/99794-PA.
Rumpf, H. and Gupte, A. R. 1975. The Influence of Porosity and Grain Size Distribution on the Permeability Equation of Porous Flow. Chemie Ing. Techn. (Weinheim). 43 (6): 367–375.
Sohrabi, M., Danesh, A., and Tehrani, D. H. 2005. Oil Recovery by Near-Miscible SWAG Injection. Presented in the SPE Europec/EAGE Conference, Madrid, Spain, 13–16 June. SPE-94073-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/94073-MS.
Stone, H. L. 1982. Vertical Conformance in an Alternating Water-Miscible Gas Flood. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 26–29 September. SPE-11130-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/11130-MS.
Stone, H. L. 2004. A Simultaneous Water and Gas Flood Design With Extraordinary Vertical Gas Sweep. Presented at the 2004 SPE International Petroleum Conference in Mexico, Puebla Pue, Mexico, 7–9 November. SPE-91724-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/91724-MS.