Multiwell, Multiphase Flowing Material Balance
- Mohammad Sadeq Shahamat (University of Calgary) | Christopher R. Clarkson (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 445 - 461
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Material Balance Equation, Multi-Phase Flow, Unconventional Reservoirs, Water Production, Flowing Material Balance
- 23 in the last 30 days
- 878 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Flowing-material-balance (FMB) analysis is a practical method for determining original hydrocarbon volumes in place. It is attractive because it enables performing material-balance calculations without shutting in wells to obtain estimates of reservoir pressure. However, with some exceptions, its application is limited to single-phase oil and/or gas reservoirs over limited pressure ranges during depletion. In unconventional reservoirs, reservoir and/or production complexities may further restrict FMB use. Among these complexities are significant production/injection of water, production resulting in higher gas/oil ratios (GORs) and pressure drawdowns, geomechanical effects, and multiwell-production effects. As a result, application of the conventional FMB to unconventional reservoirs may lead to significant errors in hydrocarbons-in-place estimation.
This paper first discusses the application of conventional FMB to the analysis of single-phase or multiphase flow in single or multiwell scenarios, and then provides a new, comprehensive version of the FMB to address the previously mentioned complications. For the new FMB, pseudopressure is used to account for two-phase oil/gas flow. In addition, by use of a general material-balance equation, water production/injection and multiwell effects are included in the analysis. The new FMB-analysis approach is validated by comparing results with numerical simulation of multifractured horizontal wells (MFHWs). These comparisons demonstrate that, not only gas production, but also water production/injection can have a significant effect on the calculated original-in-place hydrocarbon volumes. The new FMB-analysis approach provided herein successfully accounts for all flowing phases in the reservoir, and is demonstrated to be applicable for multiwell scenarios.
The methodology presented in this paper maintains the simplicity of FMB, yet accounts for multiphase flow and multiwell complications. The developed FMB and the presented approach can be used by reservoir engineers to reasonably determine the original volumes of hydrocarbons in place in both conventional and unconventional reservoirs.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Agarwal, R. G., Gardner, D. C., Kleinsteiber, S. W., et al. 1999. Analyzing Well Production Data Using Combined Type-Curve and Decline-Curve Analysis Concepts. SPE Res Eval & Eng 2 (05): 478–486. SPE-57916-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/57916-PA.
Behmanesh, H. 2016. Rate-Transient Analysis of Tight Gas Condensate and Black Oil Wells Exhibiting Two-Phase Flow. PhD dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary (January 2016).
Boe, A., Skjaeveland, S. M., and Whitson, C. H. 1989. Two-Phase Pressure Test Analysis. SPE Form Eval 4 (4): 604–610. SPE-10224-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/10224-PA.
Clarkson, C. R. 2009. Case Study: Production Data and Pressure Transient Analysis of Horseshoe Canyon CBM Wells. J Can Pet Technol 48 (10): 27–38. SPE-114485-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/114485-PA.
Clarkson, C. R., Bustin, R. M., and Seidle, J. P. 2007. Production-Data Analysis of Single-Phase (Gas) Coalbed-Methane Wells. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (3): 312–331. SPE-100313-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/100313-PA.
Clarkson, C. R., Jordan, C. L., Gierhart, R. R. et al. 2008. Production Data Analysis of Coalbed-Methane Wells. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (2): 311–325. SPE-107705-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/107705-PA.
Clarkson, C. R., Jordan, C. L., Ilk, D. et al. 2012. Rate-Transient Analysis of Two-Phase (GasþWater) CBM Wells. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 8 (September): 106–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2012.01.006.
Fevang, O. and Whitson, C. H. 1996. Modeling Gas-Condensate Well Deliverability. SPE Res Eng 11 (4): 221–230. SPE-30714-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/30714-PA.
Gerami, S., Pooladi-Darvish, M., and Mattar, L. 2007. Decline Curve Analysis for Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs: A Study on the Applicability of “Pseudo-time” and “Material Balance Pseudo-time.” Presented at International Petroleum Technology Conference, Dubai, U.A.E., December 4–6. IPTC-11278-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-11278-MS.
Jones, J. R. and Raghavan, R. 1988. Interpretation of Flowing Well Response in Gas-Condensate Wells (includes associated papers 19014 and 19216). SPE Form Eval 3 (3): 578–594. SPE-14204-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/14204-PA.
Jones, J. R., Vo, D. T., and Raghavan, R. 1989. Interpretation of Pressure-Buildup Responses in Gas-Condensate Wells. SPE Form Eval 4 (1): 93–104. SPE-15535-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15535-PA.
Kondash, A. and Vengosh, A. 2015. Water Footprint of Hydraulic Fracturing. Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2 (10): 276–280. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00211.
Mattar, L. and McNeil, R. 1998. The “Flowing” Gas Material Balance. J Can Pet Technol 37 (2): 52–55. PETSOC-98-02-06. https://doi.org/10.2118/98-02-06.
Mattar, L. and Anderson, D. 2005. Dynamic Material Balance (Oil or Gas-in-Place Without Shut-Ins). Presented at Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, June 7–9. PETSOC-2005-113. https://doi.org/10.2118/2005-113.
Morad, K. and Clarkson, C. R. 2008. Application of Flowing p/Z* Material Balance for Dry Coalbed-Methane Reservoirs. Presented at the CIPC/SPE Gas Technology Symposium 2008 Joint Conference, Calgary, 16–19 June. SPE-114995-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/114995-MS.
Raghavan, R. 1976. Well-Test Analysis: Wells Producing by Solution Gas Drive. SPE J. 16 (4): 196–208. SPE-5588-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/5588-PA.
Shahamat, M. S., Mattar, L., and Aguilera, R. 2015. A Physics-Based Method To Forecast Production From Tight and Shale Petroleum Reservoirs by Use of Succession of Pseudosteady States. SPE Res Eval & Eng 18 (4): 508–522. SPE-167686-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167686-PA.
Stalgorova, E. and Mattar, L. 2016. Analytical Methods for Single-Phase Oil Flow: Accounting for Changing Liquid and Rock Properties. Presented at SPE Europec featured at 78th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 30 May–2 June. SPE-180139-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180139-MS.
Sureshjani, M. H., Behmanesh, H., and Clarkson, C. R. 2013. Multi-Well Gas Reservoirs Production Data Analysis. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference Canada, Calgary, 5–7 November. SPE-167159-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167159-MS.
Sureshjani, M. H., Gerami, S., and Emadi, M. A. 2014. A Simple Approach to Dynamic Material Balance in Gas-Condensate Reservoirs. J. Oil Gas. Sci. Technol. 69 (2): 307–317. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst/2012022.
Walsh, M. P. and Lake, L. W. 2003. A Generalized Approach to Primary Hydrocarbon Recovery. Amsterdam: Elsevier.