Water Ion Interactions at Crude-Oil/Water Interface and Their Implications for Smart Waterflooding in Carbonates
- Subhash C. Ayirala (Saudi Aramco) | Ali A. Al-Yousef (Saudi Aramco) | Zuoli Li (University of Alberta) | Zhenghe Xu (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,817 - 1,832
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Droplet Crumpling Ratio, SmartWater Flood, Droplet Coalescence Time, Interface Pressure, Interface viscosity
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 157 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Smart waterflooding (SWF) through tailoring of injection-water salinity and ionic composition is receiving favorable attention in the industry for both improved and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in carbonate reservoirs. Surface/intermolecular forces, thin-film dynamics, and capillary/adhesion forces at rock/fluid interfaces govern crude-oil liberation from pores. On the other hand, stability and rigidity of oil/water interfaces control the destabilization of interfacial film to promote coalescence between released oil droplets and to improve the oil-phase connectivity. As a result, the dynamics of oil recovery in smart waterflood is caused by the combined effect of favorable interactions occurring at both oil/brine and oil/brine/rock interfaces across the thin film. Most of the laboratory studies reported so far have been focused on only studying the interactions at rock/fluid interfaces. However, the other important aspect of characterizing water ion interactions at the crude oil/water interface and their impact on film stability and oil-droplet coalescence remains largely unexplored.
A detailed experimental investigation was conducted to understand the effects of different water ions at the crude-oil/water interface by using several instruments such as Langmuir trough, interfacial shear rheometer, Attension tensiometer, and coalescence time-measurement apparatus. The reservoir crude oil and four different water recipes with varying salinities and individual ion concentrations were used. Interfacial tension (IFT), interface pressures, compression energy, interfacial viscous and elastic moduli, oil-droplet crumpling ratio, and coalescence time between crude-oil droplets are the major experimental data measured.
The IFTs are found to be the largest for deionized (DI) water, followed by the 10-times-reduced-salinity seawater and 10-times-reduced-salinity seawater enriched with sulfates. Interfacial pressures gradually increased with compressing surface area for all the brines and DI water. The compression energy (integration of interfacial pressure over the surface-area change) is the highest for DI water, followed by the lower-salinity brine containing sulfate ions, indicating rigid interfaces. The transition times of interfacial layer to become elastic-dominant from viscous-dominant structures are found to be much shorter for brines enriched with sulfates, once again confirming the rigidity of interface. The crumpling ratios (oil drop wrinkles when contracted) are also higher with the two recipes of DI water and sulfates-only brine to indicate the same trend and to confirm elastic rigid skin at the interface. The coalescence time between oil droplets was the least in brines containing sufficient amounts of magnesium and calcium ions, while the highest in DI water and sulfate-rich brine, respectively. These results, therefore, showed a good correlation of coalescence times with the rigidity of oil/water interface, as interpreted from different measurement techniques. This study, thereby, integrates consistent results obtained from different measurement techniques at the crude-oil/water interface to demonstrate the importance of both salinity and certain ions, such as magnesium and calcium, on crude-oil-droplets coalescence, and to improve oil-phase connectivity in smart waterflood.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Alotaibi, M. B. and Yousef, A. A. 2017. The Role of Individual and Combined Ions in Waterflooding Carbonate Reservoirs: Electrokinetic Study. SPE Res Eval & Eng 20 (1): 77–86. SPE-177983-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/177983-PA.
Alvarado, V., Garcia-Olvera, G., and Manrique, E. J. 2015. Considerations of Adjusted Brine Chemistry for Waterflooding in Offshore Environments. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 27–29 October. OTC-26293-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/26293-MS.
Alves, D. R., Carneiro, J. S. A., Oliveira, I. F. et al. 2014. Influence of the Salinity on the Interfacial Properties of a Brazilian Crude Oil–Brine Systems. Fuel 118: 21–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.10.057.
Austad, T., Strand, S., Hognesen, E. J. et al. 2005. Seawater as IOR Fluid in Fractured Chalk. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oil Field Chemistry, Houston, 2–4 February. SPE- 93000-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/93000-MS.
Austad, T., Strand, S., Madland, M. et al. 2008. Seawater in Chalk: An EOR and Compaction Fluid. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (4): 648–654. SPE-118431-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/118431-PA.
Austad, T., Shariatpanahi, S., Strand, S. et al. 2012. Conditions for a Low-Salinity Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Effect in Carbonate Oil Reservoirs. Energy & Fuels 26 (1): 569–575. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef201435g.
Bi, J., Yang, F., Harbottle, D. et al. 2015. Interfacial Layer Properties of a Polyaromatic Compound and Its Role in Stabilizing Water-in-Oil Emulsions. Langmuir 31 (38): 10382–10391. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02177.
Buckley, J., Takamura, K., and Morrow, N. 1989. Influence of Electrical Surface Charges on the Wetting Properties of Crude Oils. SPE Res Eng 4 (3): 332–340. SPE-16964-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/16964-PA.
Chandrasekhar, S. and Mohanty, K. K. 2013. Wettability Alteration With Brine Composition in High-Temperature Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166280-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/166280-MS.
Chávez-Miyauchi, T. E., Firoozabadi, A., and Fuller, G. G. 2016. Nonmonotonic Elasticity of the Crude Oil–Brine Interface in Relation to Improved Oil Recovery. Langmuir 32 (9): 2192–2198. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b04354.
Doster, F. and Hilfer, R. 2012. Corrigendum: Generalized Buckley–Leverett Theory for Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media. New Journal of Physics 14: 029501. https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/14/2/029501.
Erni, P., Windhab, E. J., Gunde, R. et al. 2007. Interfacial Rheology of Surface-Active Biopolymers: Acacia Senegal Gum Versus Hydrophobically Modified Starch. Biomacromolecules 8 (11): 3458–3466. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm700578z.
Erni, P. 2011. Deformation Modes of Complex Fluid Interfaces. Soft Matter 7 (17): 7586–7600 https://doi.org/10.1039/C1SM05263B.
Farooq, U., Simon, S., Tweheyo, M. T. et al. 2013. Electrophoretic Measurements of Crude Oil Fractions Dispersed in Aqueous Solutions of Different Ionic Compositions—Evaluation of the Interfacial Charging Mechanisms. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology 34 (10): 1376–1381. https://doi.org/10.1080/01932691.2012.747739.
Flumerfelt, R. W., Catalano, A. B., and Tong, C. H. 1979. On the Coalescence Characteristics of Low Tension Oil-Water-Surfactant Systems. Surface Phenomena in Enhanced Oil Recovery, ed. D. O. Shah, pp. 571– 594. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Springer.
Fuller, G. G. and Vermant, J. 2012. Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces: Rheology and Structure. Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering 3: 519–543. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-061010-114202.
Garcia-Olvera, G., Reilly, T. M., Lehmann, T. E. et al. 2016. Effects of Asphaltenes and Organic Acids on Crude Oil-Brine Interfacial Visco-Elasticity and Oil Recovery in Low-Salinity Waterflooding. Fuel 185: 151–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.07.104.
Garcia-Olvera, G. and Alvarado, V. 2017. Interfacial Rheological Insights of Sulfate-Enriched Smart-Water at Low- and High-Salinity in Carbonates. Fuel 207: 402–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.06.094.
Harbottle, D., Chen, Q., Moorthy, K. et al. 2014. Problematic Stabilizing Films in Petroleum Emulsions: Shear Rheological Response of Viscoelastic Asphaltene Films and the Effect on Drop Coalescence. Langmuir 30 (23): 6730–6738. https://doi.org/10.1021/la5012764.
Hirasaki, G. J. 1991. Wettability: Fundamentals and Surface Forces. SPE Form Eval 6 (2): 217–226. SPE-17367-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/17367-PA.
Hirasaki, G. and Zhang, D. L. 2004. Surface Chemistry of Oil Recovery From Fractured, Oil-Wet, Carbonate Formations. SPE J. 9 (2): 151–162. SPE-88365-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/88365-PA.
Li, X., Zhang, G., Bai, X. et al. 2008. Highly Conducting Graphene Sheets and Langmuir–Blodgett Films. Nature Nanotechnology 3: 538–542. https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2008.210.
Liu, X., Yan, W., Stenby, E. H. et al. 2016. Release of Crude Oil From Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces: On the Alternation of Surface and Molecular Forces by High- and Low-Salinity Aqueous Salt Solutions. Energy & Fuels 30 (5): 3986–3993. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00569.
Liu, Z., Herring, A., Arns, C. et al. 2017. Pore-Scale Characterization of Two-Phase Flow Using Integral Geometry. Transport in Porous Media 118 (1): 99–117.
Mahani, H., Keya, A. L., Berg, S. et al. 2017. Electrokinetics of Carbonate/Brine Interface in Low-Salinity Waterflooding: Effect of Brine Salinity, Composition, Rock Type, and pH on Zeta Potential and Surface-Complexation Model. SPE J. 22 (1): 53–68. SPE-181745-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/181745-PA.
Malkin, A. and Isayev, A. I. 2012. Rheology: Concepts, Methods, and Applications. Chapter 2 on Viscoelasticity, pp. 43–126. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: ChemTec Publishing.
Moradi, M. and Alvarado, V. 2016. Influence of Aqueous-Phase Ionic Strength and Composition on the Dynamics of Water–Crude Oil Interfacial Film Formation. Energy Fuels 30 (11): 9170–9180. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01841.
Nasralla, R. A., Sergienko, E., Masalmeh, S. K. et al. 2016. Potential of Low-Salinity Waterflood to Improve Oil Recovery in Carbonates: Demonstrating the Effect by Qualitative Coreflood. SPE J. 21 (5): 1643–1654. SPE-172010-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/172010-PA.
Pal, R., Yan, Y., and Masliyah, J. 1992. Rheology of Clay-in-Oil Suspensions With Added Water Droplets. Chemical Engineering Science 47 (5): 967–970. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(92)80223-Y.
Parra-Barraza, H., Herna´ndez-Montiel, D., Lizardi, J. et al. 2003. The Zeta Potential and Surface Properties of Asphaltenes Obtained With Different Crude Oil/n-Heptane Proportions. Fuel 82 (8): 869–874. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(03)00002-4.
Pensini, E., Harbottle, D., Yang, F. et al. 2014. Demulsification Mechanism of Asphaltene-Stabilized Water-in-Oil Emulsions by a Polymeric Ethylene Oxide-Propylene Oxide Demulsifier. Energy & Fuels 28 (11): 6760–6771. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef501387k.
Petkov, J. T., Gurkov, T. D., Campbell, B. E. et al. 2000. Dilatational and Shear Elasticity of Gel-like Protein Layers on Air/Water Interface. Langmuir 16 (8): 3703–3711. https://doi.org/10.1021/la991287k.
Reynolds, C. A., Menke, H., Andrew, M. et al. 2017. Dynamic Fluid Connectivity During Steady-State Multiphase Flow in a Sandstone. Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (31): 8187–8192. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1702834114.
Roof, J. G. 1970. Snap-Off of Oil Droplets in Water-Wet Pores. SPE J. 10 (1): 85–90. SPE-2504-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2504-PA.
Rücker, M., Berg, S., Armstrong, R. T. et al. 2015. From Connected Pathway Flow to Ganglion Dynamics. Geophysical Research Letters 42: 3888–3894.
Sadeqi-Moqadam, M., Riahi, S., and Bahramian, A. 2016. An Investigation Into the Electrical Behavior of Oil/Water/Reservoir Rock Interfaces: The Implication for Improvement in Wettability Prediction. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 490: 268–282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2015.11.040.
Strand, S., Hognesen, E. J., and Austad, T. 2006. Wettability Alteration of Carbonates—Effects of Potential Determining Ions (Ca2+ and SO2_4) and Temperature. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 276 (1–3): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.10.061.
Vandebril, S., Franck, A., Fuller. G. G. et al. 2010. A Double Wall-Ring Geometry for Interfacial Shear Rheometry. Rheologica Acta 49 (2): 131–144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00397-009-0407-3.
Wang, L., Sharp, D., Masliyah, J. et al. 2013a. Measurement of Interactions Between Solid Particles, #Liquid |Droplets, and/or Gas Bubbles in a Liquid Using an Integrated Thin-Film Drainage Apparatus. Langmuir 29 (11): 3594–3603. https://doi.org/10.1021/la304490e.
Wang, L., Xu, Z., and Masliyah, J. H. 2013b. Dissipation of Film Drainage Resistance by Hydrophobic Surfaces in Aqueous Solutions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 117 (17): 8799–8805. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp4000945.
Wu, X., Czarnecki, J., Hamza, N. et al. 1999. Interaction Forces Between Bitumen Droplets in Water. Langmuir 15 (16): 5244–5250. https://doi.org/10.1021/la981546q.
Yeung, A., Moran, K., Masilyah, J. et al. 2003. Shear-Induced Coalescence of Emulsified Oil Drops. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 265 (2): 439–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9797(03)00531-9.
Yousef, A. A., Al-Saleh, S., Al-Kaabi, A. et al. 2011. Laboratory Investigation of the Impact of Injection-Water Salinity and Ionic Content on Oil Recovery From Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (5): 578–593. SPE-137634-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/137634-PA.
Yousef, A. A., Al-Saleh, S. H., and Al-Jawfi, M. S. 2012a. The Impact of the Injection Water Chemistry on Oil Recovery From Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference of Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April. SPE-154077-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154077-MS.
Yousef, A. A., Al-Saleh, S. H., and Al-Jawfi, M. S. 2012b. Improved/Enhanced Oil Recovery From Carbonate Reservoirs by Tuning Injection Water Salinity and Ionic Content. Presented at the Eighteenth SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 14–18 April. SPE-154076-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154076-MS.
Yousef, A. A., Liu, J., Blanchard, G. et al. 2012c. Smart Waterflooding: Industry’s First Field Test in Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8–10 October. SPE-159526-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/159526-MS.
Zafar, F., Mandal, P. C., Ku Shaari, K. Z. B. et al. 2016. Total Acid Number Reduction of Naphthenic Acid Using Subcritical Methanol and 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Octylsulfate. Procedia Engineering 148: 1074–1080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.596.
Zhang, P. and Austad, T. 2006. Wettability and Oil Recovery From Carbonates: Effects of Temperature and Potential Determining Ions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 279 (1–3): 179–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.01.009.
Zhang, P., Tweheyo, M. T., and Austad, T. 2007. Wettability Alteration and Improved Oil Recovery by Spontaneous Imbibition of Seawater Into Chalk: Impact of the Potential Determining Ions: Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO2_4 . Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 301 (1–3): 199–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.12.058.
Zhang, Y. and Sarma, H. 2012. Improving Waterflood Recovery Efficiency in Carbonate Reservoirs Through Salinity Variations and Ion Exchanges: A Promising Low-Cost Smart Water Flood Approach. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 11–14 November. SPE-161631-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/161631-MS.
Zhang, L. Y., Xu, Z., and Masliyah, J. H. 2003. Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Mixed Asphaltene and a Demulsifier. Langmuir 19 (23): 9730–9741. https://doi.org/10.1021/la034894n.