Evaluation of Nanofiltration Membrane Process for Smartwater Production in Carbonate Reservoirs From Deoiled Produced Water and Seawater
- Remya Ravindran Nair (University of Stavanger) | Evgenia Protasova (University of Stavanger) | Torleiv Bilstad (University of Stavanger) | Skule Strand (University of Stavanger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- May 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 409 - 420
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- produced water, smart water, phosphate, nanofiltration, scaling
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 86 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
This research focuses on membrane-separation efficiencies by adjusting the ionic composition of deoiled produced water (PW) and evaluates the possibility for smartwater production from PW for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in carbonate reservoirs. Key characteristics of smartwater for carbonate reservoirs are increased concentrations of divalent ions and low concentrations of monovalent ions compared with seawater.
In this research, PW was pretreated with media filters, which resulted in 96 to 98% oil removal. This deoiled PW was used as feed for nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Combinations of NF retentate with seawater as feed and NF permeate from PW were considered. PW NF permeate, mixed with seawater spiked with multivalent ions, sulfate (SO2-4), or phosphate (PO3-4), is expected to alter the wettability of oil reservoirs.
NF-membrane performance was evaluated in terms of flux and the separation efficiencies of the key scaling ions calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba). The tested membranes removed 60% of Ca2+ and 53% of Ba2+, thereby reducing the scaling tendency. No membrane fouling was observed during the experiments.
NF-treated PW was analyzed for solubility of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The results showed no Ca dissolution, which could affect chalk-reservoir compaction. This research also reflects the use of nonprecipitating PO3-4 for smartwater production, simultaneously decreasing the Ba concentration and the scaling potential of PW. The results obtained conclude that spiking PO3-4 below 12 mM showed no indication of chalk dissolution during equilibration tests at room temperature. Experiments performed with 44 mM of PO3-4 resulted in calcium phosphate [Ca3(PO4)2] precipitation.
A process scheme is proposed for smartwater production by ionic selection from seawater and PW at an operating pressure of 18 bar. Energy-consumption analysis for smartwater production before membrane treatment concluded NF to be economic over other desalination technologies. The power consumed by NF membranes for smartwater production at 18 bar is calculated at 0.88 kWh/m3, whereas the power consumed is 51.22 and 103.52 kWh/m3 for reverse osmosis (RO) and multistage flash distillation (MSF), respectively.
|File Size||624 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Al-Karaghouli, A. and Kazmerski, L. L. 2013. Energy Consumption and Water Production Cost of Conventional and Renewable-Energy-Powered Desalination Processes. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 24 (August): 343–356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.12.064.
Anim-Mensah, A. R., Krantz, W. B., and Govind, R. 2008. Studies on Polymeric Nanofiltration-Based Water Softening and the Effect of Anion Properties on the Softening Process. Eur. Polym. J. 44 (7): 2244–2252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.04.036.
ASTM D7678-17, Standard Test Method for Total Oil and Grease (TOG) and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in Water and Wastewater With Solvent Extraction Using Mid-IR Laser Spectroscopy. 2017. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International.
Austad, T. 2013. Water-Based EOR in Carbonates and Sandstones: New Chemical Understanding of the EOR Potential Using “Smart Water.” In Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Case Studies, ed. J. J. Sheng, Chap. 13, 301–335. Waltham, Massachusetts: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Cheryan, M. 1998. Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Childress, A. E. and Elimelech, M. 2000. Relating Nanofiltration Membrane Performance to Membrane Charge (Electrokinetic) Characteristics. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34 (17): 3710–3716. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0008620.
Davis, R., Lomax, L., and Plummer, M. 1996. Membranes Solve North Sea Waterflood Sulfate Problems. Oil & Gas J. 94 (48): 59–64, https://www.ogj.com/articles/print/volume-94/issue-48/in-this-issue/production/membranes-solve-north-sea-waterflood-sulfate-problems.html.
Dow Chemical Company. 2008. Dow Water Solutions FILMTEC™ Membranes Product Information Catalog. https://www.lenntech.com/Data-sheets/Filmtec-Reverse-Osmosis-Product-Catalog-L.pdf (accessed 18 January 2019).
Dow Chemical Company. 2016. Dow Water & Process Solutions FILMTEC™ Reverse Osmosis Membranes Technical Manual. http://msdssearch.dow.com/PublishedLiteratureDOWCOM/dh_095b/0901b8038095b91d.pdf?filepath=liquidseps/pdfs/noreg/609-00071.pdf (accessed 18 January 2019).
Equinor. 2019. Crude Oil Assays. https://www.equinor.com/en/what-we-do/crude-oil-and-condensate-assays.html (accessed 30 January 2019).
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T., and Strand, S. 2010. “Smart Water” as a Wettability Modifier in Chalk: The Effect of Salinity and Ionic Composition. Energy Fuels 24 (4): 2514–2519. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef901304m.
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T., and Strand, S. 2011. Water-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by “Smart Water”: Optimal Ionic Composition for EOR in Carbonates. Energy Fuels 25 (11): 5173–5179. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef201019k.
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T., and Strand, S. 2012. Water-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by “Smart Water” in Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April. SPE-154570-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154570-MS.
Fink, J. K. 2012. Petroleum Engineer’s Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, second edition. Houston: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Florisil is a registered trademark of U.S. Silica Company, Corporation by Assignment Delaware, 8490 Progress Drive, Suite 300, Frederick, Maryland 21701.
Frenier, W. W. and Ziauddin, M. 2008. Formation, Removal, and Inhibition of Inorganic Scale in the Oilfield Environment. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Gupta, R., Smith, G. G., Hu, L. et al. 2011. Enhanced Waterflood for Middle East Carbonate Cores—Impact of Injection Water Composition. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 25–28 September. SPE-142668-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/142668-MS.
Heatherly, M. W., Howell, M. E., and McElhiney, J. E. 1994. Sulfate Removal Technology for Seawater Waterflood Injection. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 2–5 May. OTC-7593-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/7593-MS.
Hilal, N., Al-Zoubi, H., Darwish, N. A. et al. 2004. A Comprehensive Review of Nanofiltration Membranes: Treatment, Pretreatment, Modelling, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Desalination 170 (3): 281–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2004.01.007.
Hilal, N., Al-Zoubi, H., Darwish, N. et al. 2005. Characterisation of Nanofiltration Membranes Using Atomic Force Microscopy. Desalination 177 (1–3): 187–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2004.12.008.
Hill, G. and Holman, J. 2001. Chemistry in Context—Laboratory Manual. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Høgnesen, E. J., Strand, S., and Austad, T. 2005. Waterflooding of Preferential Oil-Wet Carbonates: Oil Recovery Related to Reservoir Temperature and Brine Composition. Presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Madrid, Spain, 13–16 June. SPE-94166-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/94166-MS.
Hydranautics. 2011. Hydranautics Products. http://membranes.com/solutions/products/ (accessed 18 January 2019).
Korsnes, R. I., Madland, M. V., Austad, T. et al. 2008. The Effects of Temperature on the Water Weakening of Chalk by Seawater. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 60 (3–4): 183–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.06.001.
Krieg, H. M., Modise, S. J., Keizer, K. et al. 2004. Salt Rejection in Nanofiltration for Single and Binary Salt Mixtures in View of Sulphate Removal. Desalination 171 (2): 205–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2004.05.005.
Manttari, M., Pihlajamaki, A., and Nystrom, M. 2006. Effect of pH on Hydrophilicity and Charge and Their Effect on the Filtration Efficiency of NF Membranes at Different pH. J. Membrane Sci. 280 (1–2): 311–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2006.01.034.
Nair, R. R., Protasova, E., Strand, S. et al. 2018. Membrane Performance Analysis for Smart Water Production for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Carbonate and Sandstone Reservoirs. Energy Fuels 32 (4): 4988–4995. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b00447.
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association. 2016. 2016 Environmental Report: Environmental Work by the Oil and Gas Industry—Facts and Development Trends. Norsk olje & gass: Sandnes, Norway. https://www.norskoljeoggass.no/contentassets/48ca21b84127487fa678bd0ad12f86f8/norog-miljorapport16_eng-orig.pdf (accessed 23 January 2019).
OSPAR Commission. 2011. OSPAR Reference Method of Analysis for the Determination of the Dispersed Oil Content in Produced Water. https://www.ospar.org/convention/agreements?q=oil+content&t=&a=&s= (accessed 7 February 2019).
Puntervold, T. 2008. Waterflooding of Carbonate Reservoirs: EOR by Wettability Alteration. PhD dissertation, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway (May 2008).
Puntervold, T. and Austad, T. 2007. Injection of Seawater and Mixtures With Produced Water Into North Sea Chalk Formation: Impact on Wettability, Scale Formation and Rock Mechanics Caused by Fluid-Rock Interaction. Presented at the SPE/EAGE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference, Abu Dhabi, 28–31 October. SPE-111237-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/111237-MS.
Rintoul, S. 2005. New ASTM TOG Test Method. Pollution Engineering 37 (3): 22–28.
Ruston, A., Ward, A. S., and Holdich, R. G. 2000. Solid-Liquid Filtration and Separation Technology. Weinheim, Germany: VCH.
Schaep, J., Vandecasteele, C., Mohammad, W. et al. 2001. Modelling the Retention of Ionic Components for Different Nanofiltration Membranes. Sept. Purif. Technol. 22–23 (1 March): 169–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5866(00)00163-5.
Seelenbinder, J. and Mainali, D. 2015. Agilent Microlab Quant Calibration Software: Measure Oil in Water Using Method IP 426. Application note, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California, February 2015.
Strand, S., Høgnesen, E. J., and Austad, T. 2006. Wettability Alteration of Carbonates—Effects of Potential Determining Ions (Ca2+ and SO2-4) and Temperature. Colloid. Surface. A 275 (1–3): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.10.061.
Tansel, B. 2012. Significance of Thermodynamic and Physical Characteristics on Permeation of Ions During Membrane Separation: Hydrated Radius, Hydration Free Energy and Viscous Effects. Sep. Purif. Technol. 86 (15 February): 119–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2011.10.033.
Tansel, B., Sager, J., Rector, T. et al. 2005. Significance of Hydrated Radius and Hydration Shells on Ionic Permeability During Nanofiltration in Dead End and Cross Flow Modes. Sep. Purif. Technol. 51 (1): 40–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2005.12.020.
Van der Bruggen, B., Schaep, J., Wilms, D. et al. 1999. Influence of Molecular Size, Polarity and Charge on the Retention of Organic Molecules by Nanofiltration. J. Membrane Sci. 156 (1): 29–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-7388(98)00326-3.
Wilf, M., Awerbuch, L., Bartels, C. et al. 2007. The Guidebook to Membrane Desalination Technology: Reverse Osmosis, Nanofiltration and Hybrid Systems Process, Design, Applications and Economics. L’Aquila, Italy: Balaban Desalination Publications.